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Introduction to Manufacturing

By: Mr. Vijay L. Ikhar

MBA(Operations Mgmt.) B.Sc.( Biotech)

Introduction to Manufacturing

Observe the objects around you:


How did they become what they are?

What important role does manufacturing play in society? How do we define manufacturing?
Manufacturing is the ability to make goods and services to satisfy societal needs
Manufacturing processes are strung together to create a manufacturing system (MS)

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1930s

1920s

1910s
1900s

1940s

Society & Manufacturing

1990s

1950s

1960s

1970s

1980s

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Types of Goods

Consumer Goods
Items which are purchased directly by consumers
Consumer electronics Clothing

Producer Goods
Items which are manufactured for other companies to produce products from
Steel Mills - coil stock Machine tool builders - Milling Machines Automotive suppliers - Taillight assemblies

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Products

Fabricating - Manufacturing of products from components, pieces, or sub-assemblies. Separate discrete items such as machined parts, bolts, nuts etc. are fabricated. Processing - Manufacturing a product in a continuous series of operation . Examples include wire, beverages, chemicals etc.

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Manufacturing a Product

Production systems include


People Money Equipment Materials Supplies Markets Management Manufacturing System All aspects of commerce
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Manufacturing a Product

The Manufacturing System

Figure 1-4 The functions and systems of the production system, which includes (and services) the manufacturing system. The functional departments are connected by formal and informal information systems designed to service the manufacturing system that produces the goods.

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Manufacturing a Product

The Manufacturing System


Collection of operations and processes to produce a desired product or component Design or arrangement of the manufacturing processes

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Roles of People in Mfg.

Design engineer responsibilities


What the design is to accomplish Assumptions that can be made Service environments the product must withstand Final appearance of the product Product designed with the knowledge that certain manufacturing processes will be used

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Roles of People in Mfg.

Manufacturing engineer responsibilities


Select and coordinate specific processes and equipment Supervise and manage their use

Industrial (Manufacturing) engineer


Manufacturing systems layout

Materials engineers
Specify ideal materials Develop new and better materials

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Roles of People in Mfg.

Technicians
QC, machine set-up, machine maintenance, machine repair, and system integration

Machinist and Tool Makers


Producing close tolerance parts and tooling to specifications

Operators
Running production parts and quality

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Aspects of a Manufacturing System

Mfg. Processes
The method (s) used to convert a product from one form to another- example metal removal. A process typically involves a sequence of steps or operations.

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Characteristics of Process Technology


Mechanics Economics or costs Time Spans Constraints Uncertainties and process reliability Skills Flexibility Process capability
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Aspects of a Manufacturing System

Operations
Distinct action to produce a desired result or effect Categories of operations
Materials handling and transport Processing Drilling, tapping, turning, milling, injecting Packaging Inspecting and testing Storing

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Aspects of a Manufacturing System

Figure 1-6 The component called a pinion shaft is manufactured by a sequence of operations to produce various geometric surfaces.

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Aspects of a Manufacturing System

Job and station


Job is a group of related operations generally done at one station Station is the location or area where production is done

Treatments operate continuously on a workpiece


Heat treating, curing, galvanizing, plating, finishing, chemical cleaning, painting

Tools, tooling and workholders


Lowest mechanism in the production is a tool
Used to hold, shape or form the unfinished product

Tooling for measurement and inspection


Rulers, calipers, micrometers, and gages Precision devices are laser optics or vision systems that utilize electronics to interpret results

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Factory Layouts

Job Shop Flow Shop Linked-Cell Shop Project Shop Continuous Process

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Factory Layouts

Figure 1-15 Different manufacturing system designs produce goods at different production rates.

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Seven Basic Processes


Casting Forming Machining Joining and Assembly Surface Treatment Heat Treatment Other

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Casting

Molten metal fills a cavity in a mold. Quick method to transform a raw material into a desired shape. Two types of casting methods:
Expendable mold
Sand casting

Permanent mold
Die casting

Plastic, composite manufacturing, and PM


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Forming & Shearing

Changing materials into a desired shape by:


Squeezing Bending Shearing Drawing

Utilizes Materials that have been previously cast or molded Performed at cold or hot temperatures
cold = room temp to .3 of the melt temperature material hot = above .3 of the melt temperature of the material
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Metal Removal - Machining

Seven basic processes


Shaping Turning Drilling Milling Sawing Broaching Abrasive machining Non-Traditional
Examples: EDM & Water-Jet

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Joining

Mechanical Fastening Welding Adhesive bonding Assembly

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Surface Treatment

Aesthetic requirements
Painting

Product requirements
Safety
Burrs

Surface treatment
chemical plating to resist rust

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Heat Treatment

Altering the mechanical properties of a material.


Strength Wear resistance Resistance to penetration

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Other

Inspection Packaging Transportation Waste disposal


Scrap Chemical by-products

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Product Life Cycle Cost

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Changing World Competition

Globalization has impacted manufacturing


Worldwide competition for global products and their manufacture High tech manufacturing for advanced technology New manufacturing systems, designs, and management

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New Manufacturing Systems

Toyota Production System


Lean manufacturing system 100% good units flow without interruption Integrated quality control Responsibility for quality is given to manufacturing Constant quality improvement

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How Do We Plan For Manufacturing?


Definition of a need Conceptual design Review of initial design Design Prototype Production plan Resource specifications Manufacturing Prototype Manufacturing Inspection--quality checks Packaging - shipping Customer response

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