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Lecture # 01

**Definition of Electric Power
**

• Power is a measure of energy per unit time. • Power therefore gives the rate of energy consumption or production. • The units for power are generally watts (W). • For example, the watt rating of an appliance gives the rate at which it uses energy.

**Definition of Electric Power
**

• The total amount of energy consumed by an appliance is the wattage multiplied by the amount of time during which it was used. • This energy can be expressed in units of watt-hours or, more commonly, kilowatt-hours.

• This heat may be part of the appliance’s intended function. • It may also be considered a loss. as in the resistive heating of transmission lines. as in any electric heating device.Definition of Electric Power • Power dissipated by a circuit element is given by the product of its resistance and the square of the current through it P=I2R • The term “dissipated” indicates that the electric energy is being converted to heat. .

P=IV • For a resistive element.Definition of Electric Power • Another. we can apply Ohm’s law (V = IR) to see that the formulas P = I2R and P = IV amount to the same thing: P = IV = I(IR) = I2R . more general way of calculating ower is as the product of current and voltage.

Definition of Electric Power • Example: • Consider an incandescent light bulb. • The power equals the voltage applied to the light bulb times the current through it. • This assume to be the normal household voltage. . 120 V. rated at 60 W. • This means that the filament dissipates energy at the rate of 60 W when presented with a given voltage.

in this case. 120 V • The power rating is specific to a given voltage but one property of the light bulb that is always the same is its resistance.5 A.5 A* 240 ohm.5 A)2 *240 ohm . 240 ohms. • And also verify that the power also corresponds to I2R: 60 W = (0. • We could determine the resistance from Ohm’s law: 120 V = 0. 60 W = 0.Definition of Electric Power • The current is 0.5 A.

• But that would be less convenient for two reasons: – First. • We could also write this as P = IV. – On the other hand.Difference between the power dissipated and the power transmitted by the line • The dissipated power is simply given by P = I2R. regardless of phase shifts. it actually has a significant reactance. the presence of reactance means that multiplying I and V together will be more complicated. although it is tempting to think of a power line as just a resistive wire. . taking the square of the current magnitude is always easy. – Because of the phase shift involved.

. if we tried to calculate dissipated power by using P = IV. – This line drop is distinct from the Line Voltage. we would have to be very careful about which V to use. – Line voltage specifies the voltage with respect to ground. – Since Ohm’s law refers to the voltage drop across a resistor. then V must be the voltage difference between the two ends of the line.Difference between the power dissipated and the power transmitted by the line – Second. otherwise known as the “Line Drop”.

– If transmission lines had no resistance at all. Thermal Losses are better calculated using P = I2R. • For these reasons. the line drop would be a few percent of the line voltage. and are often referred to as “I2R losses”. but it is usually not known precisely.Difference between the power dissipated and the power transmitted by the line – Typically. there would be zero line drop. .

• But now V refers to the line voltage. • We say that the power has been transmitted by the line at the voltage V.Difference between the power dissipated and the power transmitted by the line • When we ask about the power transmitted by the line. • The power that is available to a load connected to this line can be calculated with the formula P = IV. . like battery terminals. which is that seen by the load between the two terminals. we can think of the line as extended terminals.

multiplied by the amount of energy each electron carries. [Energy/Charge] x [Charge/Time] = [Energy/Time] . • Voltage is a measure of energy per unit charge. The product of voltage and current therefore tells us how many electrons are passing through. • Current is the flow rate of charge.Intuitive understanding of P = IV • We can have an intuitive understanding of P = IV.

voltage. . and current as real quantities that vary in time. • Instantaneous Power is equal to the instantaneous product of current and voltage. • The fundamental and correct way to interpret the statement P = IV when I and V vary in time is as a statement of instantaneous conditions. systems.c.Complex Power • Applying the simple formula P = IV becomes more problematic when voltage and current are changing over time. • Let us begin by considering power. as they do in a.

Complex Power • In other words. . P(t) = I(t) x V(t) t is the same throughout the equation (i.. the power equals the voltage times the current at that instant. instantaneous power as such is usually not very interesting for us.e. • This is expressed by writing each variable as a function of time. • However. the same instant). at any instant.

• Therefore.Complex Power • In power systems. • They are oscillating simultaneously. we need an expression for power as averaged over entire cycles of alternating current and voltage. • Consider first the case of a purely resistive load. • Voltage and current are in phase. we generally need to know about power transmitted or consumed on a time scale much greater than 1/60 of a second. .

that is the average product of voltage and current.Complex Power • The Average Power. can be obtained by taking the averages. rms values. . of each and then multiplying them together. Pave = IrmsVrms (resistive case) • Power for the resistive case is illustrated in Figure on the next slide.

Complex Power Power as the product of voltage and current. with voltage and current in phase .

• The relative timing of voltage and current has been shifted. the product of voltage and current.Complex Power • But now consider a load with reactance. • As a result. the instantaneous power . • This is shown in Figure on next slide. . • Their maxima no longer coincide. • In fact. one quantity is sometimes negative when the other is positive. is sometimes negative.

.Complex Power Power as the product of voltage and current. with current lagging behind voltage by a phase angle f.

• It is the power that flows “backwards” along the transmission line. . • But just how much less? • Fortunately.Complex Power • We can interpret the negative instantaneous power. the average power is clearly less than it was in the resistive case. • Since instantaneous power is sometimes negative. or out of the load and back into the generator. this is very easy to determine.

Pave = IrmsVrms cos ϕ . • Here we skip the mathematical derivation and simply state that: The reduction in average power due to the phase shift is given by the cosine of the angle of the shift.Complex Power • The average power is directly related to the amount of phase shift between voltage and current.

f. . often abbreviated p.Complex Power • The factor of cosϕ is called the POWER FACTOR. • This same equation can also be written as: Pave = (ImaxVmax cos ϕ)/2 • Each rms value is related to the maximum value by a factor of 1/√2.

• In the special case where there is only resistance and no phase shift. and we get the formula from the previous page. Pave = IrmsVrms (resistive case) .Complex Power • This equation is true for any kind of load. • So there is no need to write down the cosϕ. we have ϕ=0 and cosϕ= 1.

having no resistance at all. . but is not dissipated the average power is zero. • It means that power only oscillates back and forth.Complex Power • Consider another special case where the load is purely reactive. • In this case. the phase shift would be ϕ=90o and cosϕ=0.

• It is also called Real Power.Complex Power • The Average Power corresponds to the power actually transmitted or consumed by the load. Active Power or True Power. and is measured in watts. .

denoted by the symbol S. regardless of their phase shift. they are expressed differently to maintain an obvious distinction. The product of current and voltage. Its magnitude is given by: • S = IrmsVrms • Although apparent and real power have the same units physically. the units of apparent power are called volt-amperes (VA).Complex Power • • There are other aspects of the transmitted power that we wish to specify. Thus. is called the Apparent Power. • .

• The point is that apparent power is a much better measure of the current than real power. • Since the operating voltage of a given piece of equipment is usually quite constant. apparent power is a fair way of indicating the current. • Actually. the current is often inconvenient to specify.Complex Power • Apparent power is important in the context of equipment capacity. the crucial quantity with respect to thermal capacity limits is only the current. though. because it does not depend on the power factor. • In practice. Thus. . utility equipment ratings are typically given in kVA or MVA.

and its magnitude is given by: Q = IrmsVrms sin ϕ . • It is denoted by the symbol Q. • Reactive power is the component of power that oscillates back and forth through the lines.Complex Power • So what is the difference between Apparent and Real Power. • It is the Reactive Power. being exchanged between electric and magnetic fields and not getting dissipated.

note how the equation converges for the resistive case. • We can represent power as a vector in the complex plane. • When ϕ=0.Complex Power • Again. . for Volt-ampere Reactive. • Reactive power is measured in VAR. then sinϕ=0. and there will be no reactive power at all.

Complex Power The complex power S. . with real power P in the real and reactive power Q in the imaginary direction.

Complex Power • The angle ϕ is the same as the phase difference between voltage and current. . • The projection of apparent power onto the imaginary axis has length Q and corresponds to reactive power. • This agrees with the factors of cosϕ and sinϕ in the formulas for P and Q. • The projection of the apparent power vector onto the real axis has length P and corresponds to the real power. respectively.

which is composed of the resistance R in the real and the reactance X in the imaginary direction. S is the vector sum of P and Q.Complex Power • In mathematical terms. it is completely analogous to the complex impedance Z. • In this sense. .

ϕ would be negative. . and Q and S would point downward. ϕ is positive and the power factor is said to be lagging • It is like the current lagging behind the voltage.Complex Power • Note that when Q and S are pointing upward in Figur. • For a leading power factor.

Complex Power • Example: Consider a vacuum cleaner that draws 750W of real power.33 A.75 lagging. How much current does it draw? Since the real power is given by the apparent power times the power factor.75 = 1000 VA = 1 kVA. .c. and a power factor of 0. at a voltage of 120V a. The rms current is the apparent power divided by the rms voltage: 1000 VA / 120 V = 8. the apparent power equals 750 / 0.

• In other words. • In fact.” it means that when presented with a given voltage. the angle ϕ in Z is the same as the angle f in S. the ratio of resistance to reactance determines the ratio of real to reactive power drawn by a load. it draws reactive power in relation to its reactance. • Accordingly a certain amount of power will be dissipated or exchanged. • Just as a load draws real power in relation to its resistance. .Complex Power • When we say that a load “draws power. a certain amount of current will flow through this device.

• But because of the difference in timing. whereas capacitive loads are said to “supply” reactive power. • Either type of shift causes reactive power to oscillate through the circuit. the contributions of inductance and capacitance to reactive power are opposite. . • This is merely a terminological convention.Complex Power • Specifically. • Recall that inductors and capacitors produce opposite phase shifts. and a rather misleading one. inductive loads are said to “consume” reactive power.

• Conversely. the capacitor electric field in the same circuit releases energy. • Although on average neither inductor nor capacitor gains or loses energy. the electric field absorbs it. their effects are complementary. at the instant that the magnetic field releases energy.Complex Power • At the instant that the inductor magnetic field absorbs energy. • Following the law of energy conservation. . the amount of energy going into the circuit must equal the energy coming out of the circuit at every instant.

in operational terms. power source to compensate for the load’s circulation of reactive power. inductance and capacitance in a circuit must always be matched. therefore.Complex Power • In principle. • The preferable way to satisfy the reactive power balance is by adjusting the a. . the problem of managing reactive power is analogous to that of managing real power. • A circuit will behave in such a way as to provide equal absorption and release of reactive power at any instant. • Thus.c.

the utility must compensate for the precise amount of reactive power that is being circulated at any instant. . electric loads are dominated by inductance. • In practice. • This operational perspective explains the use of the physically improper terminology of “consuming” and “supplying” reactive power.Complex Power Just like the utility must supply the precise amount of real power that is demanded at any instant. • Utilities therefore associate supplying real power with compensating for inductive reactance. not capacitance. a lagging current.

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