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# Bridge Project

Problem Definition: Design a Bridge to span a given distance while supporting a maximum load using a minimum materials.

Project Goals
The goals for this project are for students to: • Learn the design process. • See practical applications for trigonometry, physics, and engineering statics (force analysis). • Improve skills associated with collecting data and drawing meaningful conclusions. • Experience the usefulness of prototype testing. • Recognize the necessity of good communication skills for engineers by completing memos, reports, drawings, and presentations.

Introduction to Bridge
• Bridge Type – Truss Bridge – Arch bridge – Suspension Bridge – Cantilever Bridge
Reference web sites: http://pghbridges.com/basics.htm http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/bridge/basics.html http://science.howstuffworks.com/bridge.htm

Truss Bridge • Truss design is to support the bridge deck • The truss may have ompression or tension • The joint of truss is important .

Imagine entire truss wrapped in rubber skin. Hint . •Bottom members in Tension.Force Analysis (Truss) • Loads members in tension and compression. • Triangles provide stability and strength. • Members are pinned at joints (Moment = 0). •Top members in Compression. so you have a large rubber box. where would the wrinkles be? They indicate compression. . When you bend it.

Compression = Steel Axis of bending Tension . vs.Force Analysis (Beam) • Ways to strengthen members in bending. – Decrease overall length (deflections). – Cross section design (moment of inertia) – Use stronger materials (elastic modulus).

Truss .

Deck .

Arch bridge • Appear mostly in Ancient time • New arch bridge is modified to reduce the material .

• Need horizontal support at abutments. Abutment .Function of Arch structure • Puts members in compression.

Girder and Truss .Suspension Bridge • Replace the Beam with cable • Reduce the need for the Pier .

• Good for long spans.Suspension • Puts members in tension. . • Carries weight up to the top of the towers.

Tower Design .

Cantilever Bridge • No support at the bridge it self • The material must be very strong • Or the structure must be different .

Box Girder Bridge • Box structure reduce the weight and material • Increase the strength on top and bottom to resist compression and tension .

Project Constraints Size: See above & 100 stick limit per bridge Shape: Original ideas encouraged! Strength: Must support a minimum of 15 lbs. .

Constraints: Building Materials • 100 Wood tongue depressors (6”) • Glue guns and glue sticks and wood glue • String .

you want to maximize the load held using the least amount of material. .Scoring Equation Score = Load at Failure(performance) Weight of Bridge(cost) As engineers.

Testing Procedure 2” dowel 2” x 6” thin plate testing jig .

Project Break-down • • • • • • • • • • • Project Intro (Problem Definition) Component Strength Tests (Information Gathering) Individual Brainstorming of Ideas (Idea Generation) Group Prototype Brainstorming (Idea generation) Prototype Selection (Idea selection) Full-Scale Prototype Construction (Implementation) Prototype Testing (Information Gathering) Engineering Analysis w/ software (Information Gathering) Redesign (Idea generation) Final bridge construction (Implementation) Final Test Competition! (Information Gathering) .

Project Schedule Timeline: • Prototype Design. Build. Test – 2 weeks • Presentation and report – 1 to 2 classes after Final Test . Test – 1 week • Final Design. Build.

Grading • Design and testing – Bridge Ideas -10% – Components test Memo-5% – Prototype bridge performance-5% – Draft Report-5% • Project report – Bridge Final Presentation-10% – Competition-5% .

Engineering Fundamentals • Mechanics of Materials • Construction Methods & Hints! .

torsion. shear. compression.What is the easiest way to break a tongue depressor? • • • • • Pull? Push? Twist? Shear? Bend? Principle of Scissors Engineering terms .tension. & bending .

– avoid compressing long bridge members causes buckling (a kind of bending). • DO’s – load members in tension and compression (short) when possible. – brace bending members when possible. .Bending! • DON’Ts Thus bridge design Do’s & Don’ts: – avoid bending bridge members when possible.

Bridge Type we have learned • • • • Truss Bridge Arch Bridge Suspension Bridge Cantilever Bridge – Box Girder Bridge .

Quiz • Which orientation of a beam is stronger under bending and why? vs. Axis of bending I I C • Arch members are in T or C? • Label members in T and C T C T T .

. • Strengthen base supports and load point. Use string for tension members. Design a 3-D structure from the start! Use short members in compression.How can you improve your bridge design? • • • • Incorporate truss structure (triangles).(Reduce material and weight) • Avoid overloading joints.

Component Test-Compression and buckle Test-1 • Compress your spaghetti until it start to buckle(When you don’t feel you need to apply additional force but the structure still keep bending) • Hold(use you hand) the center point to see how much force you need to increase to have buckling • Hold another two point to see how much force you need to increase to reach buckling .

Component Test-Compression and buckle Test-2 • Cut the spaghetti in half and try again • Cut the spaghetti in half again and try again • Record all the force and Test Situation .

Tension Test on the joint • Specimen preparation – Use four depressor • Two as a group. Glue them together • Drill one hole on the each group • Overlap two group according to test procedure and glue them together • Use hook to hold the structure • Start tension and compression test by force gauge and scale • Do unit conversion if necessary • Take your record home and make excel plot and report .

Fatigue Test • Bend Paper clip and count how many cycle it is needed to break it! • Test 5 Paper clip .

Torsion Test • Twist a chalk and see how it break • Explain why it happen(explain in Components test Memo ) .