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Implementing a Preventive Maintenance Program (FOR ENGINEERS



• Explain the importance of maintenance in production systems. • Describe the range of maintenance activities. • Discuss preventive maintenance and the key issues associated with it. • Discuss breakdown maintenance and the key issues associated with it. • State how the Pareto phenomenon pertains to maintenance discussions.


• WHAT IS MEANT BY THE TERM “MAINTENANCE” ? • Maintenance encompasses all those activities that maintain facilities & equipment in good working order so that a system can perform as intended. • Maintenance can also be termed as asset management system which keeps them in optimum operating condition.


TBM Daily Checks Periodic Checks Periodic Inspect Periodic Service

Planned CBM Maint. BM CM



PM: Preventive Maintenance TBM: Time Based Maintenance CBM: Condition Based Maint. BM: Breakdown maintenance CM: Corrective Maintenance

NOTE:- Structured recording of all the activities is vital.

GOAL OF MAINTENANCE • The goal of maintenance is to keep the production system in good working order at minimal cost. They are: – BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE. – PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE. 5 . • Decision makers have 2 basic options with respect to maintenance.

TYPES OF MAINTENANCE • BREAKDOWN MAINTAINANCE:– Real approach. adjustment. and replacement of worn parts. cleaning. inspection. – Reducing breakdowns through a program of lubrication. – Dealing with breakdowns or problems when they occur… • PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE:– Proactive approach. 6 .

the degree of technology involved. The same concept applies to maintaining production systems. The type of production process. The age and condition of facilities and equipment.• • • • The best approach is to seek a balance between preventive maintenance and breakdown maintenance. The decision of how much preventive maintenance is desirable. 7 .

g.PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE • More and more organizations are taking a cue from the Japanese and transferring routine maintenance (e. adjusting.. 8 . cleaning. inspecting) to the users of equipment. in an effort to give them a sense of responsibility and awareness of the equipment they use & cut down the abuse & misuse of the equipment.

• Durability and ease of maintenance can have long term implications for preventive maintenance programs. 9 .PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE • Preventive maintenance extends back to the design and selection stage of equipment and facilities. • Training employees in proper operating procedures and in how to keep equipment in good operating order – and providing the incentive to do so – are also important. • Poor design can cause equipment to wear out at an early age or experience a much higher than expected breakdown rate.

10 . – After a predetermined no.PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE The goal of preventive maintenance • Preventive maintenance is periodic. – According to the calendar (passage of Time). • Preventive maintenance is generally scheduled using some of the following contributions:– The result of planned inspections that reveal a need for maintenance. of operating hours.

the more effective preventive maintenance will be. 11 . • The better the predictions of failures are.PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE • This is an attempt to determine when best to perform preventive maintenance.

Preventive Maintenance .

.Preventative Maintenance • What is a Preventive Maintenance? – Preventive Maintenance is planned maintenance that is designed to improve Equipment life and avoid breakdowns on the plant.

Preventive Maintenance: Basics l Basics l Task list l Single cycle plan l Strategy plan l Maintenance plan scheduling  SAP AG 1999 .

Types of Preventive Maintenance Preventive maintenance Time-based 2000 Performance-based Condition-based 30 40 50 60 20 10 70 80 Pressure Temperature Pressure Thickness  SAP AG 1999 .

Preventive Maintenance • An Equipment can require maintenance activities to be performed based upon either time or a certain condition being met. External visual inspection Internal visual inspection Check gear teeth for wear .

Preventive Maintenance: Phases and Roles Phase Contents Create task lists for different objects Roles Maintenance planner 1 2 3 4 5 Task list Maintenance plan Schedule Maintenance order Technical completion Create maintenance plans Maintenance planner Schedule maintenance plans Maintenance planner Process maintenance orders Maintenance technician Technically complete maintenance orders Maintenance supervisor  SAP AG 2001 .

Preventive Maintenance: Task List l Basics l Task list l Single cycle plan l Strategy plan l Maintenance plan scheduling  SAP AG 1999 .

Task List at? h W Operations Maintenance work centers Material components Production resources/tools y Wh ? Maintenance packages For Forpreventive preventivemaintenance maintenance (maintenance and (maintenance andinspection) inspection) For Forroutine routinemaintenance maintenance (planned repairs) (planned repairs)  SAP AG 1999 .


Maintenance Strategy • What is a Maintenance strategy? – A Maintenance Strategy defines the frequency and scheduling data for Planned Maintenance activities. .

Maintenance Strategy 2000 Package definition Scheduling parameters Time 4 Week Strategy 12 Weeks 24 Weeks What is a Maintenance Package? .

You can assign maintenance packages to the operations in a task list. •Maintenance packages are part of a maintenance strategy.Maintenance Package •Maintenance packages define the frequency at which specific operations are executed. Package number Description Cycle length Unit of measurement Hierarchy Offset .

Maintenance Package Hierarchy Same hierarchy levels Strategy 10 10 Different hierarchy levels Strategy 10 X 20 .

Preventive Maintenance: Single Cycle Plan l Basics l Task list l Single cycle plan l Strategy plan l Maintenance plan scheduling  SAP AG 1999 .


? .Single Cycle Plan • Simple and quick way to create a preventive or inspection plan. What is a Maintenance Item -. • All operations on the Task list will be performed. • Can be either time or performance based. • More than one Maintenance item can be included. • Includes only one cycle or frequency.

Maintenance Item • • • Every Maintenance plan will have at least one Maintenance item. The Maintenance item contains the following information: – Description (Becomes the Maintenance order description) – Technical object – Task list – Planning Data • Order or notification type • Planner group • Priority • Main work center • Maintenance activity type – Object list . A Maintenance item can only belong to one maintenance plan.

. The Technical object can be an Equipment.Maintenance Item (Cont. Functional location or Assembly. The Maintenance item description becomes the description of the Maintenance notification or order. The Task list for this Maintenance item will also need to be linked to the same Maintenance strategy. For Maintenance items that are part of a Strategy based plan a Maintenance strategy must be included within the item.) • • • • • A Maintenance item can contain more than one Technical object.

Task List Task List Group PRTs Components Maintenance Item Technical Object Task List Planning Data Maintenance Plan Maintenance Item Scheduling Param. Cycle (Frequency) .Single Cycle Plan Steps • Three steps in creating a single cycle plan.

Scheduling Data and Maintenance Item Interval (cycle) Maintenance plan 3 months Scheduling data Maintenance item Maintenance item Reference object Responsibilities/ Planning data  SAP AG 2001 Task list (optional) .


Single Cycle Scheduling 1 Maintenance plan Scheduling data Planned Date Maintenance item Cycle Start Cycle 12 Weeks .

Preventive Maintenance: Strategy Plan l Basics l Task list l Single cycle plan l Strategy plan l Maintenance plan scheduling  SAP AG 1999 .


Strategy Technical Object Task List The Task List checks the Package to ensure the Strategy still exists. Maintenance Plan Maint.Maintenance Plan Steps Strategy Maintenance Packages Task List Task List Group Maint. Strategy Maintenance Item Maint. Strategy Maintenance Item Scheduling Param. The Item checks the Task List to make ensure that the same Strategy is used The Plan checks the Item to make ensure that the same Strategy is used . Packages Maint.



Preventive Maintenance: Maintenance Plan Scheduling l Basics l Task list l Single cycle plan l Strategy plan l Maintenance plan scheduling  SAP AG 1999 .

Schedule Maintenance Plans Cycle start New start Manual call Last actual date Last maintenance package Start in current cycle * Schedule Last actua l date Next planned date Next maintenance package * Only for strategy plan  SAP AG 2001 .

Maintenance Scheduling Overview

Maintenance item report, sorted by equipment (no.)

... as a graphic With maintenance plan simulation With/without details


... or as a list With display variants With general list viewer

 SAP AG 1999

Predictive Maintenance
• Predictive Maintenance is one of the four tactical options available to ensure the reliability of any asset to ensure it fulfils its function and it focuses primarily on maintaining equipment based on its known condition. Each of these strategies: on-failure, fixed time, predictive and design out, has a place in an optimized maintenance plan, the distribution of the mix being dependent on many factors.


Predictive Maintenance
• • • Predictive maintenance is often the most attractive concept, since action is only undertaken when knowledge of the asset indicates that failure or underperformance is imminent, making it a cost effective asset management option. Many other benefits, some intangible such as the increased motivation of the workforce through increased competency, exist. Others include: Equipment may be shut down before severe damage occurs or can be run to failure if required.

• •

Production can be modified to extend the asset's life i.e. until the next planned shutdown.
Required maintenance work can be planned All of the above lead to increased safety, plant output and availability and lead to improvements in final product quality.


supported by definitions of responsibilities. but requires a measurement system that continuously accounts for the benefits. it requires comprehensive skills training.Predictive Maintenance • Predictive maintenance is a process that requires clear roles and responsibilities. As such we develop company appropriate predictive maintenance processes. and communication paths. • Condition monitoring is a knowledge-based activity. not only has a technology element. so for it to be successful and sustainable. 45 . which integrate into the Reliability effort as a whole. Any successful predictive maintenance program. • Condition monitoring facilitates Predictive Maintenance.

• The following methodologies are key in any multi-technology condition monitoring program : • Root Cause Failure Analysis • Tribology And Lubrication Engineering Services • Specialist Condition Monitoring Services 46 . making these the most cost depletive of all maintenance expenditures.Asset Performance Troubleshooting • Often it is a couple of poor performing assets with a chronic repeated failure condition that absorb the majority of the maintenance budget. Some commentators state that approximately 80% of a typical maintenance budget is stored away for chronic failures.

• Typically. which in combination find out why a particular failure or problem exists and sets in place a set of defense actions correcting those causes. when assets fail most organizations have always found some understanding and rational leading to an explanation as to why it broke. 47 . But root cause failure analysis takes you beyond that to the latent roots. Once you've found these.ROOT CAUSE FAILURE ANALYSIS • Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCFA) is both a process and a set of technical skills. you have the means to solve many other potential problems that haven't yet occurred. which are the management system weaknesses.

48 .Tribology as it is estimated that component wear and lubrication problems are responsible for at least 70 % of mechanical failures.Tribology And Lubrication • Tribology is the study of wear and lubrication.

Tribology And Lubrication 49 .

Condition Monitoring • In industry. location interval and processing. it is also important to record enough information in order to be able to carry out monitoring and diagnosis. • Condition monitoring depends on selecting the right mix of parameters that match expected faults and using the correct measurement technique. 50 . condition monitoring is the measurement of parameters which may indicate a fault condition either by an increase or decrease in overall measured value or by some other change to a characteristic value. • When used as part of a pro-active maintenance plan. the use of condition monitoring enables the operation of a predictive maintenance policy and provides major improvements in productivity.

51 .Condition Monitoring • • • • • • • • • Considerations include: Type of measurement Measurement interval Accuracy of measurement Repeatability Condition monitoring falls into two distinct classes: Monitoring which can be carried out without interruption to the operation of the machine Monitoring which requires the shutdown of the unit. from simple techniques such as visual surface inspections to more complicated procedures like spectral vibration analysis. or at least the releases of the machine from its prime duty The range of methods in use is very wide.

where employees are give greater responsibility for quality. 52 . • This approach is consistent with JIT systems and lean production.PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE TOTAL PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE • JIT approach where workers perform preventive maintenance on the machines they operate. productivity and the general functioning of the system.

• Build an organization that prevents every type of loss – zero accidents – zero defects – zero failures • Involve all departments in TPM implementation.The TPM Concept • Develop a Company-wide philosophy to maximize the effectiveness of production systems. • Involve everyone from top management to shop-floor operators • Use small groups (teams) to make improvements. 53 .

preventative maintenance .The “Total” in TPM • Total effectiveness: – pursuit of economic efficiency and profitability • Total PM: – establishing a maintenance plan for the life of the equipment .improved maintainability • Total Participation: – autonomous maintenance by operators and team based approach to problem solving 54 .

Before TPM Implementation Maintenance Operations Engineering 55 .

After TPM Implementation A Team Effort Operations + Engineering + Maintenance Waste Downtime Defects The Common Enemies 56 .

Before TPM Implementation: Barriers Operations Engineering Maintenance 57 .

TPM Builds Bridges Operations Engineering Maintenance 58 .

effort. and resources required can TPM be profitable for an Organization 59 .The TPM Prerequisite Only by adopting a proactive approach and putting in the time.

A Model for TPM Development Formal TPM Announcement TPM Awareness Education Phase I Form TPM Steering Group Preparation Establish TPM Goals Prepare Implementation Plan 60 .

The TPM Development Model Continued Conduct Focused Improvement Activities Establish an Autonomous Maintenance Program Phase II Implement a Planned Maintenance Program Implementation Conduct Operation and Maintenance Skill Training Build an Effective Administrative Support System 61 .

Core TPM Activities • • • • • • • • • Focused Improvement Projects Autonomous Maintenance Planned (Preventive) Maintenance Education and Training Early Management (Equipment Design and Installation) Quality Maintenance Administrative and Support Activities Safety and Environmental Management Diagnostic and Predictive Maintenance 62 .

The Major Plant Losses • • • • • • Equipment Failures Process and Equipment Set-ups And Adjustments Idling and minor stoppages Reduced Processing Speed Quality Defects Reduced Yield 63 .

Quality Defects 6. Idling and minor stops 4. Equipment Failures 2.Ultimate Improvement Goals for Chronic Losses Type of Loss 1. Yield Losses Goal 0 minimize 0 0 Explanation Reduce to zero for all equipment Continuous effort to reduce setup times Reduce to zero for all equipment Bring operating speed to design speed. Reduced Processing Speed 5. Setup and Adjustments 3. then improve speed beyond design level Small levels might be acceptable (6-sigma) 0 minimize 64 .

Measurement Measurement Is Necessary for Improvement. People Do How They Are Measured! 65 .

Basic TPM Outcome Measures Productivity Quality Costs Labor Costs Maintenance Costs Energy Costs Delivery Safety Units per labor hour Product Defects Value added per person Warranty Costs Throughput Customer Satis. Index Downtime Re-worked units Number of Breakdowns Scrap/Waste Lost time Accidents Incidents On-time shipments Near Misses Employee Satisfaction Number of Improvement Ideas Number of Teams Employee Satisfaction Index 66 .

Measuring Effectiveness Overall Equipment Effectiveness -OEE OEE = Availability x Performance Rate x Quality Rate OEE: A Measure of the Percentage of Time that the Equipment is Adding Value 67 .

(number of defectives) total production 68 .Calculating OEE OEE = A x P x Q where: A (Availability) = planned time .downtime planned time P (Performance rate) = (standard time/unit)(units produced) Operating time = (planned time .downtime) Operating Time Q (quality rate) = (total production) .

440 minutes per day (3 shifts) Downtime averages 120 minutes per day. The standard time per unit is .) Compute OEE 69 . Daily production averages 900 units with a 20 % defect rate.8 minutes. P. and Q are equally weighted. (Assume that A.OEE Example The Plant operates 1.

3 x P.3 kP = .5 Q.Computing OEE Weightings on A.2 x Compute OEE using these weights. 70 .2 kQ = . and Q In many instances Availability. P.5 OEE = A. Instead they are weighted differently. Performance rate and Quality rate are not considered to be equal in importance. For example: kA = .

OEE Component Targets
• Availability (A) > .90 • Performance Rate (P) > .95 • Quality Rate (Q) > .99 • Availability (A) > .90 kA • Performance Rate (P) > .95 kP • Quality Rate (Q) > .99 kQ

} }

unweighted targets

weighted targets


OEE Examples
Source: Japan Institute of Planned Maintenance
1. Overall Effectivess 2. Availability 3. Performance 4. Operating Speed Rate 5. Net Operating Rate

Automated Machinery
51.3 - 78.4 95-98 54-80 90-100 60-80

Automatic Assemblers
38.0 - 80.7 95 40-85 100 40-85

Automatic Packers
72.0 90 80 100 80


20-40% of losses due to idling and minor stoppages

15-60% of losses due to idling and minor stoppages

20% of losses due to idling and minor stoppages


Overall Equipment Effectiveness-- OEE
• A Measure of TPM Progress • Manufacturing Contribution to Quality Improvement • A Method to Identify Opportunities for Improvement

OEE Is Not

• Synonymous with TPM
•To be used to compare facilities •The same as utilization •Easy to calculate


Chronic and Sporadic Losses
• Chronic Losses: Losses that occur repeatedly within some range of distribution
• Sporadic Losses: Sudden occurrences that Sporadic Loss go beyond the normal range Defect
rate Optimal Condition Chronic Loss Time

rarely a single cause Direct Fixes can be made Can be very costly May take many tries Economic Impact Cumulative effect can can be very costly 75 .Chronic and Sporadic Losses Sporadic Losses Chronic Losses Latency Causation Types of Action Conspicuous Cause-and-effect easy to determine Hidden Often unclear .

How Chronic Losses are Reduced • Increasing Equipment Reliability • Restoring Equipment to its Original Condition • Identify and Establish Optimal Operating Conditions • Eliminating Small Defects that are Often Overlooked 76 .

Reliability Issues Intrinsic Reliability Design Reliability Operation Reliability Manufacturing Reliability Maintenance Reliability Installation Reliability Operational Reliability Based on Equipment Design Based on Use (conditions) 77 .

Learning to Use Equipment Fully and Make Basic Improvement Search for Optimal Conditions Eliminate Minor Equipment Defects Physical Analysis P-M Analysis Intrinsic Reliability Operational Reliability Techniques for Making Use of Equipment Restoration Design Reliability Fabrication Reliability Installation Reliability Operation Reliability Maintenance Reliability Study of Equipment Usage Techniques for Managing Equipment Eliminate Tampering Trial-and-Error Gather Operators’ Experiences 78 .

physical-problem— M machinery-manpower-material All pertinent factors in a chronic loss are efficiently identified and eliminated. Materials.P-M Analysis P Phenomena. Clarify the Problem Evaluate Equipment. and Methods Formulate Improvement Plans Conduct a Physical Analysis of the Problem Plan the Investigation List Every Condition Potentially Related to the Problem Investigate Malfunctions 79 .

discernment • Judgment – logical thinking. pride of ownership • Preventative – understanding of equipment.Raising Employee Skills Through TPM A TPM Goal is to Improve Employee Skill Levels • Attention – concentration. measurement • Prediction Skills – subtle signs. make sound decisions • Take Correct Action and provide Appropriate Treatment – Prompt action. knowledge of equipment 80 .

It begins simultaneously with the start of TPM “Focused Improvement includes all activities that maximize the overall effectiveness of equipment.Focused Improvement Focused Improvement is an active priority of any TPM program . and plants through uncompromising elimination of losses and improvement of performance.” 81 . processes.

Focused Improvement A High Priority Doable Short-term 4-7 people Crossfunctional Empowered Select a Project Form a Project Team Establish Status Access to Resources Commitmen t Register the Project Follow the P-M Analysis Cycle ongoing training and education Measure Progress and results 82 .

• Understand the philosophy of focused improvement • Understand the significance of losses and the rationale of improving overall effectiveness • Understand the production process well • Gather data on failures.Preparation by Improvement Teams Teams should prepare in the following ways. trouble. and losses and plot over time • Clarify the basic conditions necessary to assure proper functioning of equipment and define what factors contribute to its optimal state • Understand the necessary techniques for analyzing and reducing failures and losses 83 .

Focused Improvement Step-by-Step Procedure Activity/Step Step 0: Select the Project Detailed Outline Select and Register the Project Form the Project Team Plan Activities Identify bottleneck processes Measure failures. defects. and other losses Use baseline to set targets Carefully Expose all Abnormalities Restore deterioration and correct minor flaws Establish basic equipment conditions Stratify and Analyze Causes Apply analytical techniques (P-M Analysis) 84 Conduct experiments Step 1: Understand Situation Step 2: Expose and Eliminate Abnormalities Step 3: Analyze Causes .

go to step 3 and continue Draw up control standards to sustain results Formulate work standards Feed information back into the maintenance prevention program Step 6: Check Results Step 7: Consolidate Gains 85 .Focused Improvement Step-by-Step Procedure (continued) Activity/Step Step 4: Plan Improvement Detailed Outline Draft Improvement Proposals Compare cost-effectiveness of alternative proposals List disadvantages of each alternative Step 5: Implement Improvement Carry out improvement plan Provide instruction related to implemented changes Evaluate improvement over time and the project proceeds Check whether targets have been achieved If not.

Analytical Techniques for Improvement • • • • • • • • P-M Analysis Ask Why 5 times Fault tree Analysis (FTA) Failure Mode and Effect Analysis Industrial Engineering Value Analysis Seven Basic Tools of Quality The “New Seven” Tools of Quality 86 .

Autonomous Maintenance Maintenance Performed By the Equipment Operators One of the most important basic building blocks in any TPM Program Goals of Autonomous Maintenance: •Prevent equipment deterioration through correct operation and daily checks • Bring equipment to its ideal state through restoration and proper management •Establish the basic conditions needed to keep equipment well-maintained 87 .

Autonomous Maintenance Step-by-Step Implementation Activity/Step Step 1: Perform Initial Cleaning Detailed Outline Eliminate Dust. lubricating. and tightening with minimal time and effort. Step 2: Eliminate Sources of Contamination Step 3: Establish cleaning and checking standards Step 4: Conduct General Equipment Inspections 88 . and Grime Expose any irregularities Correct minor flaws Reduce housekeeping by eliminating sources of dirt .quantify when Possible. Improve efficiency of checking gauges and visual display controls Provide inspection skills training Modify equipment to facilitate inspection Chart inspection results . Dirt. Improve access to difficult areas Formulate standards for cleaning.

tools. Establish clear procedures for autonomous maintenance Reduce Setup Procedures Establish system for self-management for spares. data. etc.Autonomous Maintenance Step-by-Step Implementation (continued) Activity/Step Step 5: Perform General Process Inspections Detailed Outline Train and Educate Operators to achieve process-competent operators Prevent inspection duplications and omissions by incorporating individual equipment inspection standards into process or area inspection plans. Keep accurate maintenance records Perform proper data analysis Take appropriate action Step 6: Do Systematic Autonomous Maintenance Step 7: Practice Full Self-Management 89 .

Necessary Accomplishments for Process-Competent Operators Level 1: – – Level 2: – – Level 3: – – Level 4: – – – Understand Process Performance and Function Operates Process Correctly Understands the properties of the materials handled Performs correct adjustment and settings Detects abnormalities promptly Takes emergency action against abnormalities Recognizes sign of abnormality Deal with abnormalities correctly Performs periodic overhaul checking and parts replacement 90 .

TPM Benefits.Keys to Successful Autonomous Maintenance • Introductory Education and Training – TPM Objectives. TPM Overview • Cooperation Between Departments and Shifts – Consensus agreement on how to support TPM and AM • Group Activities – small groups with leadership from shop floor to management • AM is not voluntary – mandatory and necessary – management must provide leadership and support 91 .

as needed • Aim for Measurable Results – clear.Keys to Successful AM (continued) • Practice – practical application versus conceptual understanding • Progressive Education and Training – gradual skill development . support and critique 92 .step-by-step . appropriate measures (and goals) • Operators Should Determine Standards to Follow – operators set standards and criteria for maintenance consistent with organizational objectives • Management Should Audit the AM Progress – provide guidance.

will require commitment and appropriate staffing • Take Time to Perfect AM – Don’t rush the process .Keys to Successful AM (continued) • Use Model Projects – Use as examples for the rest of the organization • Correct Equipment Problems Promptly – Maintenance department must react quickly to fix problems uncovered by AM activities .make sure the skills are there 93 .

Measures of Preventive Maintenance Results • • • • • • • • • Downtime Trend Operating Rate Failure Frequency Failure Severity (length of failure downtime) Maintenance Time per Incident Quality Defect Rate Failure Costs Emergency Repair Time Ratio of Maintenance Cost to Unit Production Cost 94 .

Like everything associated with TPM. . • Step 6: Evaluate the Preventive Maintenance System. successful implementation of a 95 preventive maintenance system will take time and support.IMPLEMENTATION SUMMARY OF PM • Step 1: Evaluate Equipment and Understand Current Conditions. System. Weaknesses. • Step 2: Restore Deterioration and Correct • Step 3: Build an Appropriate Information • Step 4: Build a Periodic Maintenance System • Step 5: Build a Predictive Maintenance System.

– Inventories of spare parts. – Repair people who are well trained and readily available to diagnose and correct problems with equipment. 96 . • The major approaches used to deal with breakdowns are:– Standby or backup equipment can be quickly pressed into service.BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE • The risk of a breakdown can be greatly reduced by an effective preventive maintenance program. – Operators who are able to perform at least minor repairs on their equipment.

BREAKDOWN MAINTENANCE • Breakdown programs are most effective when they take into account the degree of importance a piece of equipment has in the production system • The ability of the system to do without it for a period of time. 97 .

such as condition monitoring. scheduled. Typically REM requires only 30-50% of the resource input that would be required for RCM. • • • • 98 . or to adjust changes in maintenance resources. It provides optimum results when a review of equipment maintenance is required to ensure that: The most effective maintenance plan is adopted Preventive. designed to deliver financially driven results at minimum cost and time. while achieving similar results.Review of Equipment Maintenance • The Review of Equipment Maintenance (REM) is an incremental approach. design put and on-failure maintenance are integrated into a cohesive strategy The maintenance plan needs to respond to changes in plant operation The review may also be required to introduce a new technique.

Review of Equipment Maintenance • REM focuses primarily on maintenance strategy arising from business drivers. such as demand and operating patterns and can be considered in two major stages: • Reliability and criticality analysis • Maintenance review 99 .

100 . the resources available.Review of Equipment Maintenance The output of a REM study is an optimized maintenance plan. and the level of technology employed by the organization. This is a working document. which can be translated into the physical reality of conducting operational maintenance. where the appropriate risk based defence of the asset is defined. the criticality of the asset. This takes in to account the goals of the organisation.

• The problems are grouped and labeled as vital few and trivial many. 101 . only a few are quite frequent/costly.PARETO DIAGRAMS • Pareto diagram is an important quality tool used in prioritizing & deciding the course of action in maintenance management. • The others seldom occur/cost less. • Of all the problems that occur.

PARETO DIAGRAMS • Pareto principle lends support to the 80/20 rule. 102 . • Pareto diagrams help quickly identify the critical areas for management’s attention.

major. minor) or whatever else seems appropriate.e. whether it should be based on cost or frequency of occurrence. STEP 2 Determine how relative importance is to be judged i. STEP 3 Rank the categories from most important to least important. STEP 5 Plot a bar graph showing the relative problem of each problem area in descending order. STEP 4 Compute the cumulative frequency of the data categories in their chosen order. type of conformity (critical. 103 .STEPS FOR CONSTRUCTING PARETO DIAGRAMS •     STEP 1 Decide on data categorization system by problem type..

104 .STEPS FOR CONSTRUCTING PARETO DIAGRAMS • STEP 6 Identify the vital few that deserve immediate attention.

PARETO DIAGRAMS PROBLEM TYPE A DESCRIPTION % OF OCCURENCE 40 ANNUAL COST (IN $1000) 20 CUMMALITIVE % OF OCCURENCE 40 Substandard quality of raw material Improper setting of machine Inadequate operator training Poor storage of finished parts Drop in hydraulic pressure impresses Cutter not sharp Electrical breakdowns B 20 6 60 C 14 3 74 D 10 2 84 E 8 2 92 F 5 1.5 97 G 3 1.8 100 105 .

0 80 % 74.PARETO DIAGRAMS 100 97.0 92.0 O F 60 60.0 0 A B C PROBLEM TYPE D E F G106 .0 T 40 O T A L 20 40.0 84.0 100.


Introduction Introduction to Life Cycle Cost Objectives of Maintenance and Maintenance Cost Maintenance Definition How to get unplanned repair jobs planned Maintenance Procedures Failure Development Total Productivity Maintenance Maintenance Management Systems .

Modern maintenance management is to keep the equipment running at high capacity and produce quality products at lowest cost possible.Modern maintenance management is not to repair broken equipment rapidly. .

. In connection with the high technical development the impact of productivity and quality has moved from man to machine. production equipment has been more developed. then and now Many years ago. Maintenance was of course simple and impact to certain extent to the function of machines.Maintenance. The importance of maintenance has considerably increased. During the industrialization. the manufacturing and production work was done with relatively simple technical equipment and the involvement of more manpower.

There are many reasons why maintenance is becoming more and more important. . it is common that the spare part inventory is growing bigger than necessary. A very essential part in maintenance management is developing countries to reduce the need of spare parts. In developing countries . Some times it is difficult to find spare parts for equipment and if it is possible to find them. but still keeping the productivity high. Due to long lead times of supply of spares. as well as to maintain the minimum level of shock to save foreign currency. they are usually very expensive and must be paid on foreign currency. the spare part problem are arising. where many old machines are operating.

Design 4. High quality equipment will give high reliability and maintainability which secure high productivity and equipment efficiency. Idea 2. Operation 6.Maintenance has to be taken into consideration in very early stage of work of procuring new equipment to ensure a good and cheap operation. Procurement(Manufacturing) 5. The lifetime of the equipment can be spilt up in six phases 1. Windup . Specification 3.

Bath Tub Curve The bath tub curve describes the cost of equipment over its lifespan. From commissioning to winding up. Cost 100% Life Time .

LCC – Life Cycle Cost – is commonly understood to be the customer’s total cost and other sacrifice during the actual life time of the product. . Hence LCC includes the acquisition cost as well as all future costs for operation and support of the product until it is finally discard.

. Adaptation of the maintenance and support organization.  Improvements of products.Comparison of alternative products.

to create an availability performance which is suitable for production demands in the organization. one among the cost generators in the organization. Production buy availability performance from maintenance. Objective of the maintenance is . The previous approach has been that maintenance is the necessary evil. Very often the maintenance strategy in plants has been to reduce the maintenance cost as much as possible without thinking of the consequences. .Objectives of Maintenance During the years the maintenance function has not been seen as a condition for production output. as priority one . No mechanized/atomized company has yet succeeded to produce with stopped equipment.

Keep up the planned availability performance 2. At the lowest cost Above all Within the safety prescriptions .1.

A very common delusion is that .All enterprises and organizations are interested in lowering maintenance costs.


There are two ways of managing the maintenance costs Cost or Result Controlled Maintenance .

 The upper priority in the objectives of maintenance is to “keep up planned availability performance at the lowest cost possible” . The reason why maintenance has been treated as a cost controlled activity.The cost controlled maintenance is not considered as modern maintenance management. It is simple to find the direct cost for maintenance but it could be difficult to see the results. Is often that engineers and technical staff have had some dilemma to measure the results of investments in maintenance in total economical terms. . This means that the long term results are important. The maintenance cost must be put in relationship with overall results achieved by maintenance in production facility.


The maintenance cost can be split up in two different categories.Losses due to maintenance .  Direct maintenance costs - The costs are directly related to the performance of the maintenance works Indirect maintenance costs .

.Direct maintenance costs • Wages & Salaries • Material Costs • Administration Costs • Costs for training • Spare parts costs • Contracted work forces • Modification Costs Indirect Costs • Loss of revenue or other losses as a result of interruption to production as a result of maintenance.

maintenance can not be measured by the cost it creates.”P” stands for prime product produce and “M” stands for maintenance cost. There must be an connection to the production out put some way. It is naturally impossible to determine anything about the size of the direct costs. When using the PM-factor. the result of the maintenance impact on the production is measured. Prime Production PM – Factor = Maintenance Cost X 1000 . How many products are produced per a 1000 units of “maintenance money”.Many times there are needs to measure the maintenance efficiency. However. One method to control the direct maintenance is to use the PM-factor.

AVAILABILITY PERFORMANCE The ability of equipment to function properly. Despite occurrence of failures. . disturbances and Limitations in the maintenance resources.

Availability performance can be divided in to tree parts:  Reliability Performance  Maintenance Support Performance  Maintainability Performance .

. under stated Conditions of use. to perform a required Function under stated conditions for a stated period of time.The ability of an item.

Under stated condition.The ability of a maintenance organization. . to provide upon Demand the resources required to Maintain an equipment.

under started conditions of use.The ability of an equipment. To be retained or restored to state in which it can perform a required function. when maintenance is performed under stated conditions and using stated procedure and resources. .

MAINTENANCE The term maintenance covers all Activities undertaken to keep equipment in a Particular condition or return It to such condition . it is necessary for every body in a company to understand the maintenance concept and speak the same language.In order to set up maintenance strategy for an enterprise.

The term maintenance consists of three main parts  Corrective maintenance Preventive maintenance Improvement maintenance .

CORRECTIVE MAINTENANCE (CM) Corrective maintenance covers all Maintenance which is carried out in Order to correct (repair) a fault in equipment .

WHAT IS FALIURE ? Digress of demands of a certain quality .

Planned & unplanned corrective maintenance Corrective maintenance is divided in CORRECTIVE MAINTERANCE UNPLANNED PLANNED Break Down Emergency Repairs Urgent Not possible to Control You are controlled by the equipment Planned Maintenance Prepared Properly Possible to Control You control the Equipment .

PREVENTIVE MAINTERANCE (PM) Preventive maintenance covers all Programmed maintenance which is carried out in order to prevent the Occurrence of failures before they Develop to a breakdown or Interruption in production. .

Lubrication Fixed time replacement .Preventive Maintenance is Divided In PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE INDIRECT Condition Based Maintenance (CBM) DIRECT Fixed time Maintenance(FTM) Detection of failures Before break down Cleaning.

Indirect Maintenance INDIRECT PM Subjective Using human senses Look . taste Objective Using off line instrument Continuous. smell . listen . feel . on-line monitoring .

IMPROVEMENT MAINTENANCE (IM) Improvement maintenance is used When to modify the equipment so the Condition improves. Improvement Maintenance includes activities which are carried out once. . the failure Will never occur again or extend the life time of parts.e. The objectives of improvement maintenance are to Design out the failure i.

.One of the objectives of the maintenance job is to get them planned This gives increased availability performance and lower direct maintenance costs and a lot of other advantages. By condition monitoring the unplanned jobs are transferred to planned job. • Use of condition monitoring Through condition monitoring the failure development and it is therefore possible to plane the forthcoming jobs before a break down occurs. The load on the maintenance department will for instance be lower and the quality of the jobs higher. •Planned maintenance resulting in lower costs for maintenance and lesser down time.


Results in the correct maintenance work is carried out  At the right time  In the right way  By the right professional  With the right spare parts “Real maintenance management is impossible without condition based preventive maintenance” .

D. RED . C. From sophisticated procedures to low level procedures. O.When a maintenance strategy is going to be formulated. L.D Fixed-time maintenance.  Operate to break down (unplanned corrective maintenance).T.B.M Design out maintenance.T.O. there are many maintenance procedures that could be chosen.E Redundancy.T.M Condition-based maintenance. F.B.M Life-time extension.

Some failures are occurring completely unexpected.INDIVIDUAL LIFE TIME Machines. handling etc. Some failures are occurring after a certain. all types of equipment. and can almost be predicted. The individual life time is different from part to part and is influenced by the quality of the product but also by other outside factors such as environment. have their own individual lifetime. spare parts. . expected time.

FAILURES Random Failures Non-Predictable Regular Failures Predictable .

The failure development time is the deterioration time from the moment condition departs from the normal condition until the moment of break down occurs. Shorter FDT – Continuous on line condition monitoring has to be applied Longer FDT – Off-line condition monitoring has to be applied .Failure Developing time(FDT) Some failures either they are random or regular. have longer or shorter failure development time. Failures with failure development time is easier to handle than the failures without failure development time.

.Total Productivity Maintenance (TPM)  TPM is a way of organizing maintenance to support productivity & quality through increased equipment efficiency and to reduce costs. TPM concept means that all employees work in small groups to maximize the improvement of equipment efficiency. Operators are working independently with all maintenance activities of their own equipment and have also the total responsibility of operation and maintenance.

Fundamental Goals of TPM Increased productivity and quality Zero defects Reduced cost of maintenance and production Increased motivation among all employees Zero accident Shorter lead time Zero unplanned stops Development of staff through training Improvement of work environment .

Incentives for MMS or CMMS (rule of thumb) Reduction on MDT Increased machine life Saving on labour and spares about 20% about 20 % 10 – 20% Savings on maintenance budget 10 – 20% .

General of maintenance systems The maintenance function must also have necessary aids to manage the maintenance activities to coop up to the main target of the enterprise. a maintenance management system is necessary. Maintenance management means a better control of the maintenance organization and the related area. The main purpose of a maintenance management system is in operation and works properly. To be able to manage the maintenance activities in the right way. . information is required to analyze what is occurring. To properly control the maintenance of a facility. The system can be either manual or computerized.


Inventory and spare parts control system. Purchasing system 4. Plant and unit record(Equipment) 3. Technical/economic analysis of plant history. Preventive maintenance 2. Document record 5.The basic function of a maintenance management system can be : 1. maintenance and machine availability . Planning system for maintenance and work order routines 6.

Effective planning and scheduling significantly to the following: contribute

• Reduced maintenance cost. • Improved utilization of the maintenance workforce by reducing delays and interruptions. • Improved quality of maintenance work by adopting the best methods and procedures and assigning the most qualified workers for the job.

Planning and Scheduling Objectives
• Minimizing the idle time of maintenance workers.
• Maximizing the efficient use of work time, material, and equipment. • Maintaining the operating equipment at a responsive level to the need of production in terms of delivery schedule and quality.

Classification of Maintenance Work According to Planning and Scheduling Purposes
• Routine maintenance: are maintenance operations of a periodic nature. They are planned and scheduled and in advance. They are covered by blanket orders. Emergency or breakdown maintenance: interrupt maintenance schedules in order to be performed. They are planned and scheduled as they happened.

Design modifications: are planned and scheduled and they depend on eliminating the cause of repeated breakdowns.
Scheduled overhaul and shutdowns of the plant: planned and scheduled in advanced.

Overhaul, general repairs, and replacement: planned and scheduled in advanced. Preventive maintenance: planned and scheduled in advanced.

• . The maintenance management system should aim to have over 90% of the maintenance work planned and scheduled.• An essential part of planning and scheduling is to forecast future work and to balance the workload between these categories.

Planning Planning is the process by which the elements required to perform a task are determined in advance of the job start. .

Planning • It comprises all the functions related to the preparation of: 1. 4. 2. • Good planning is a prerequisite for sound scheduling. 6. 3. . 5. The work order Bill of material Purchase requisition Necessary drawings Labor planning sheet including standard times All data needed prior to scheduling and releasing the work order.

Develop work plan. Assign workers with appropriate skills. Check if special tools and equipment are needed and obtain them. This entails the sequence of the activities in the job and establishing the best methods and procedures to accomplish the job.Planning Procedures • • Determine the job content. Establish crew size for the job. Plan and order parts and material. • • • • .

Predict the maintenance load using effective forecasting technique. Review the backlog and develop plans for controlling it. Set priorities for all maintenance work. Complete the work order. Assign cost accounts.Planning Procedures • • • • • • Review safety procedures. .

It focuses on the determination of all the elements required to perform maintenance tasks in advance.Basic Levels of Planning Process (Depend on The Planning Horizon) 1. Short-rang planning: it covers a period of 1 day to 1 week. Long-rang planning: it covers a period of 3 to 5 years and sets plans for future activities and longrange improvement. Medium-range planning: it covers a period of 1 month to 1 year. 2. 3. .

3. . 2.Long and Medium-Range Planning Needs to utilize the following: 1. Reliable job standards times to estimate staffing requirements. Aggregate planning tools such as linear programming to determine resource requirements. Sound forecasting techniques to estimate the maintenance load.

.Long-Range Planning sets plans for future activities and long-range improvement.

Balances the need for staffing over the period covered. preventive maintenance plans. Provide details of major overhauls. construction jobs. and plant shutdowns. Estimates required spare parts and material acquisition.Medium-Range Planning • • • • Specify how the maintenance workers will operate. .

Short-Range Planning It focuses on the determination of all the elements required to perform maintenance tasks in advance. .

.Scheduling Is the process by which jobs are matched with resources and sequenced to be executed at a certain points in time.

Scheduling • Scheduling deals with the specific time and phasing of planned jobs together with the orders to perform the work. controlling it. and reporting on job progress. • . monitoring the work. Successful planning needs a feedback from scheduling.

Reliable Schedule Must Take Into Consideration • A job priority ranking reflecting the criticality of the job. Flexibility in the schedule. Realistic estimates and what is likely to happen. The production master schedule. • • • • . The availability of all materials needed for the work order in the plant.

Daily schedule . Long-range (master) schedule 2. Weekly schedule 3.Maintenance Schedule Can be Prepared at Three Levels (Depend on The Time Horizon) 1.

anticipated EM). Balancing long-term demand for maintenance work with available resources. Based on existing maintenance work orders (blanket work order. Spare parts and material could be identified and ordered in advance. Subject to revision and updating to reflect changes in the plans and maintenance work. PM.Long-Range (master) Schedule • • • • • Covering a period of 3 months to 1 year. . backlog.

CPM and integer programming techniques can be used to generate a schedule. Generated from the master schedule. The schedule prepared for the current week and the following one in order to consider the available backlog. . The work orders scheduled in this week are sequenced based in priority. Takes into account current operations schedules and economic considerations. Allow 10% to 15% of the workforce to be available for emergency work.Weekly Schedule • • • • • • • Covering 1 week.

Interrupted to perform EM.Daily Schedule • • • • • Covering 1 day. Priorities are used to schedule the jobs. Generated from weekly schedule. . Prepared the day before.

(Work to be done. • Information about craft availability for each shift. crafts needed. • Stocks of spare parts and information on restocking. methods to be followed.Elements of Sound Scheduling Requirements for effective scheduling: • Written work orders that are derived from a wellconceived planning process. and priority). • Time standards. . spare parts needed.

Elements of Sound Scheduling Requirements for effective scheduling: • Information on the availability of special equipment and tools necessary for maintenance work. • Information about jobs already scheduled that are behind the schedule (backlog). . • Well-define priorities for maintenance work. • Access to the plant production schedule and knowledge about when the facilities will be available for service without interrupting production schedule.

location. Arrange orders by priority. Schedule multi-craft jobs to start at the beginning of every shift. Authorize a supervisor to make work assignments (dispatching). . Compile a list of completed and carry over jobs.Scheduling Procedures (Steps) • • • • • • • Sort backlog work orders by crafts. travel distance. Issue a daily schedule (not for shutdown maintenance). and the possibility of combining jobs in the same area. Consider job duration.

Maintenance Job Priority System • • • • • Priorities are established to ensure that the most critical work is scheduled first. It should be dynamic. It typically includes three to ten levels of priority. . It must be updated periodically to reflect changes in operation and maintenance strategies. It is developed under coordination with operations staff.

The critical jobs that require special attention and effective monitoring. The interdependencies among jobs.Scheduling Techniques The objective of the scheduling techniques is to construct a time chart showing: • • • The start and finish for each job. .

.Scheduling Techniques Such techniques are: • • • • Modified Gantt chart CPM PERT Integer and stochastic programming.

Maintenance Management System *Planning Maintenance Activities *Organizing Maintenance Activities *Controlling Maintenance Activities 180 .

1.Planning Maintenance Activities * Maintenance Philosophy * Maintenance Load Forecasting * Maintenance Capacity * Maintenance Organization * Maintenance Scheduling 181 .

182 .1 Maintenance Philosophy To Maintain a minimum level of resources in order to optimize the production and plant availability without compromising safety of all concern.1.

1.1 Maintenance Philosophy Strategies * Breakdown / Corrective * Preventive Maintenance Time/Used Based Conditioned Based * Opportunity Maintenance 183 .

1.1 Maintenance Philosophy Based on Maintenance Philosophy. * Maintenance Activities Planning * Maintenance Activities Organizing & * Maintenance Activities Controlling Should carried out. 184 .

2Maintenance Load Forecasting Factors to be considered * Age of the equipment * Usage rate * Quality of maintenance (Depend on inputs ) * Climatic factors 185 .1.

3Maintenance Capacity Planning MCP answers following * Required labour Qty & Qlty * Required materials Spares parts Equipment Tools 186 .1.

4 Maintenance Organization Depending on the maintenance load. trade skills. It can be * Decentralized * Area * Centralized 187 . size of the plant.1. etc.

Specialized workers hence labour utilization low * Centralized Multi skilled flexible workforce 188 .1.4 Maintenance Organization * Decentralized Quicker response time.

2.Organizing Maintenance Activities

2.1 Job Design 2.2 Time Standards 2.3 Project Management


2.1 Job Design
2.1.1 Work content of each job 2.1.2 Method to be used 2.1.3 Special tools needed 2.1.4 Required resources 2.1.5 Required man power in quantity and quality

2.2 Time Standards
2.2.1 Determine the critical jobs 2.2.2 Work measurement techniques Direct measurements * Time study/Work sampling Indirect measurements * Predetermined Motion Time Systems

2.2 Time Standards
Basic Steps in Time Study Process * Select the job * Break the job in to elements * Observe the jobs * Compute the basic time * Determine the allowances * Establish job standards

3 Cost Control 3.3.4 Quality Control 193 .2 Inventory Control 3.1 Work Control 3.Controlling Maintenance Activities Controlling involves 3.

1.1 Work performed .2.Overtime 194 .Quality and time taken 3.3.Contract maintenance .2 Standards 3.Controlling Maintenance Activities 3.Workforce adjustment .1 Work Control 3.2.3 Backlog (Increasing/Decreasing) .

Controlling Maintenance Activities 3.3.5 Deterioration cost (Poor Main.2 Down time cost 3.3.3 Cost Control 3.1 Direct maintenance cost 3.6 Over maintaining cost 195 .3.3.3 Consequence reject cost 3.) 3.4 Redundancy cost

3 Cost Control Cost controlling measures * Using alternative maintenance materials * Modifying inspection procedures * Revising maintenance procedures * Changing material handling procedures * Changing workshop layout 196 .Controlling Maintenance Activities 3.3.

Controlling Maintenance Activities 3.3.4 Quality Control * Repeat jobs * Quality materials * Worker skills * Proper processes * Proper tools/equipment 197 .

Maintenance Training Performances depend on Knowledge Skills – Ability to perform Attitudes 198 .

Maintenance Training Steps in designing a training program * Preparation of a training policy * Assessing the currant situation * Analyzing the training needs * Designing training program * Implement training program * Evaluating the programs 199 .

Maintenance Training Training need analysis *Identify desired performances *Identify difference between expected / actual performances *Identify root causes *Identify appropriate solutions *Selecting/implementing appropriate solutions. 200 .

skills and all resources but lack the motivation to perform the job leads to performances deficiencies 201 . equipment.Maintenance Training Root causes *Knowledge and skill factor Workers do not possess necessary knowledge and skills to perform the job *Organizational factors Workers possess knowledge and skills but lack of tools. etc. *Motivational factors Workers posses knowledge.

Maintenance Improvement Factors influencing maintenance systems *Organization staffing and policy * Training * Motivation * Management control * Facilities * Stores and materials * Preventive maintenance and equipment history * Information system 202 .

Failure detection . *It is known as Mean Time To Repair (MTTR) *Ratio between total down time and number of repairs *Component of down time .Resource arrange .Inform to maintenance .Failure identification .Maintenance Concepts Maintainability *Probability of maintaining an equipment in a specified time duration.Test and release 203 .Attending to failure .

Maintenance Concepts Designing for Maintainability targets *Frequency of required repairs *The duration of repair time *The total maintenance intervention time such as Preventive maintenance *Assessability *Compatibility 204 .

Maintenance Concepts Maintenance Prevention Designs *Built in diagnostics process *Ease in disassembly and reassembly *The total maintenance intervention time such as Preventive maintenance *Assessability *Compatibility * Adoptability 205 .