You are on page 1of 25

UNIT 2

ELECTRIC UTILITY MARKETS IN THE UNITED STATES By Dr.K.ELANGO

Power Markets
North America Europe Asia

South America

Africa

Australasia

Pool Scheduling Systems Major ISO Systems

Power Markets: North America (EMS) .

North American Wholesale Electricity Markets ISO / RTO Landscape Source: Report to Congress on Competition In Wholesale and Retail Markets for Electric Energy (2006) .

Overview of Market Characteristics Comparison of ISO / RTO Markets ISO New England and Peers Large Multi-State Large Single-State Limited Feature ISO New England Wholesale Markets Y NYISO Y N Y Y PJM Y N Y Y Midwest ISO Y N Y Y CAISO Y N N Y Proposed for '09 Y N N N N N N Y Y N ERCOT Y Y N Y Proposed for '09 Y N Y N N N Y Y Y N SPP Y N N Y Retail Markets N LMP Y Real Time Market Y Day Ahead Market Y Y Y N N N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y N N N Y Y N Proposed for ‘08 Proposed for ‘08 N N N N N N N N N N N N Energy Markets FTR Auctions Y FTR Options N Renewable Energy Tracking Y Futures Market N Marginal Losses Y Virtual Bidding Y Demand Response Y Regulation Ancillary Services Market Y Operating Reserves Y Capacity Y .

California Markets • Even though it offers many common entities. . restructuring in California is viewed as being totally different from other restructuring proposals in other countries or even those in the United States.

California Markets • • • • • • • • • ISO Generation Power Exchange Scheduling Coordinator Utility Distribution Companies (UDCs) Retailers and Customers Day-ahead and Hour-Ahead Markets Block forwards Market Transmission Congestion Contracts(TCCs) .

acquires ancillary services as required. balances the operation of transmission grid in realtime.ISO • The ISO. manages the reliability of transmissions system. approves day-ahead and hour ahead schedules. • The ISO also determines the real-time market price after the fact based on actual metered data. • The ISO guarantees a non-discriminatory open access to transmission for all users. concerned with the reliability of the transmission grid. maintains the real-time balancing of load and . • The real-time market is operated by the ISO which uses ancillary services bids and supplemental energy bids submitted through PX and SCs.

. • Generating companies could bid ancillary services through the PX or another SC into the ISO.Generation • Non-investor-owned and independent power producers could either bid their power into the PX or schedule it through another SC.

and the PX determines the MCP. • The PX is a non-profit corporation that is open to all suppliers. . provides an efficient and competitive auction and facilitates short-term pool electricity transactions. participants of the PX submit demand and generation bids based on prices and quantities. • The PX performs competitive trading in the forward day ahead and hour a head markets (auctions). • In these auctions.Power Exchange • The PX represents the energy spot market where dayahead and hour-ahead market clearing prices are determined.

adjustment bids and supplemental energy bids. whether it is produced in or outside California. which are used by the ISO to match loads and resources on a real-time basis.• PX submits ancillary service bids to the ISO for maintaining the system reliability. • PX acts as an SC • PX facilitates delivery of energy from the ISO grid to participating entities. .

• The ISO runs the information thorough a computer program to check for transmission congestions. otherwise. the ISO will send an approval signal to the SC. retailers and customers. . • SC plays as intermediary between the ISO. If no congestion exists. the SC will be advised to sell. buy or trade power to resolve the situation.Scheduling Coordinator • A new dimension to competition in power markets by arranging trading between generators and customers.

. • This is different from restructuring proposals in New York. PJM and New England where the ISO resolves congestion.• SC plays a critical role in restructured power systems • SCs are the only market players for generation dispatch and responsible for means that congestion is resolved.

only SCs have this power. • The ISO is not allowed to adjust individual schedules of SCs’ participants. . with one exception in the case of extreme emergency.• SCs powerful in this model is the fact that only SCs would schedule power in the ISO controlled system.

• In the day-ahead market. SC participants could trade energy for reducing congestion and lowering power costs. This may lead market participants to avoid the PX to prevent possible curtailments in the future. . while PX traders cannot respond to congestion through bids or trades.• Major Differences between SC and PX. it has a limited role and trading functionality as compared to other SCs. • PX is seen as an SC.

• The ISO has different procedures for inter-zonal and intra-zonal congestion.• Interaction between the ISO and SCs in Congestion Management • Transmission system is at peak. and these changes are implemented by the ISO based on the data passed by SCs to the ISO. and SCs have a major role in these procedures. • Different SCs interact with the ISO by representing their participants in day-ahead. changes in generation and loads are required. To manage transmission congestion. hour-ahead and real-time markets. . lines in the ISO controlled area could be congested especially when inter-state trading exists.

.• Interaction between the ISO and SCs in Ancillary Services • SC could submit schedules and bids for ancillary services and bids to provide power in the real-time market.

industrial. agricultural . • Customers : commercial. • Retailers may market and purchase power for retail customers and serve as demand aggregators for retail loads. residential.Utility Distribution Companies (UDCs) • UDCs provide distribution services to all electric customers and retailers within their service territories.

Block forwards Market .Markets • • • • Day-Ahead Market Hour-Ahead Market Real-time (Balancing) Market.

Day-ahead market • participants would bid supply and demand for the next day’s 24 hours. the ISO announces the final day-ahead schedules. • payment settlements would be based on schedules provided within three days after each trading day. and closes at 1:00 p.m. of the day ahead of the trading day. .m. This market starts at 6:00 a. • When the market closes.

Once the market is closed. • This market provides a means for participants to buy and sell so as to adjust their day-ahead commitments based on information closer to the transaction hour schedules for minimizing real-time imbalances. • In this market. bids are unit specific and MCP is determined the same way as the day-ahead market. .Hour-ahead market • Participants perform a similar bidding process as the day-ahead market. the PX would declare the price and traded quantities to participants. where the hour-ahead market begins two hours before the hour of operation.

• Block Forwards contracts which would improve the overall efficiency of the Califonia’s electricity market. especially large purchasers.Block Forwards Market • CalPX’s market participants were asking the CalPX to offer forward contracts to include on-peak blocks of energy at fixed prices. . hedge hourly price risk by reducing their exposure to potential price volatilities during peak demand periods. • The efficiency would be improved by offering longer term trading instruments to help market participants.

• Contracts are available for each of the following six months. from 6 a. which includes much of the summer when electrical demand and prices are highest and most volatile in California. to 10 p. .• The market offers monthly on-peak electricity contracts for delivery beginning in July and for the following five months. daily. for each day of a month.m.m. excluding Sundays and certain holidays. • Each forward block consists of 16 on-peak hours.

except for Sundays and certain holidays. • Block Forwards Market will provide flexibility to buyers and sellers to lock in prices months in advance of the actual delivery date.• The contract is an excellent instrument to hedge against hourly price variations for purchases and sales in the day-ahead market. . • Each Block Forwards contract represents a megawatt of electricity delivered over 16 on-peak hours for each day of the month.

Transmission Congestion Contracts (TCCs). these contracts would become more valuable. which in turn could motivate an efficient expansion of transmission capacity. . When the possibility of congestion increases. • The contract networks approach is proposed that would redistribute congestion rentals to TCC holders which in turn would create additional incentives for the expansion of transmission system. • TCC can be traded and granted to new investors in a grid. • Transmission Congestion Contracts (TCCs) were proposed to deal with congestion in a transmission grid.