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# Physics: Classic vs.

Quantum
Sekolah Tinggi Teknologi Indocement

Outlines
Fisika klasik Kegagalan fisika klasik Persamaan Schrodinger Penafsiran fungsi gelombang Superposisi (dualisme gelombang) dan nilai harap Aplikasi mekanika kuantum

Fisika Klasik
Materi dan energi adalah dua konsep berbeda.
Sir Isaac Newtons laws of motion James Clerk Maxwells theory of electromagnetic radiation

Mechanics, dynamics, hydrodynamics, statics, optics, thermodynamics, acoustics. Hukum kekekalan massa, hukum kekekalan energi, hukum kekekalan momentum.
They state that mass and energy can be neither created nor destroyed, and the momentum of an object will only be changed if an outside force acts on it.

Fisika Kuantum
Tahun 1900, garis demarkasi berakhirnya fisika klasik.
Max Planck berbicara mengenai small units of energy disebut quanta.

Teori Relativitas Einstein Quantum Mechanics Classical physics can be thought of as physics on a macro scale; it explains the big, basic things of the world and does not drill down into the tiny world of molecules and atoms in order to describe how the world works.

## 1. Blackbody Radiation 2. The Photoelectric Effect 3. The Hydrogen Atom

Any object with a temperature above absolute zero emits light at all wavelengths. If the object is perfectly black (so it doesn't reflect any light), then the light that comes from it is called blackbody radiation.

E = hf

Photoelectric Effect

Electrons can only absorb energy from individual photons. Only light with short enough wavelength has photons with enough energy to eject an electron.

## The Hydrogen Atom

Classical physics said that because the orbiting electron is constantly changing direction, it should emit electromagnetic radiation --- light. As a result, the electron should be continually losing energy. In fact, physicists calculated that the electron should lose all of its energy and spiral down into the proton in only about 0.000000000001 second! In other words, atoms should not exist longer than a mere 10-12 seconds. WRONG!!

Niels Bohr provided an explanation in 1913. In the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom, the electron can't orbit the proton in any size orbit it pleases. There are only certain allowed orbits, and each allowed orbit has a certain radius and a certain energy. He said that when an electron is in an allowed orbit, the electron will not produce electromagnetic radiation. Question: If the electrons do not produce light when they are in their allowed stable orbits, where is the source of the light that comes from hydrogen? Answer: According to Bohr, electrons have more energy when they are in larger orbits. If an electron falls from a larger orbit down to a smaller orbit, it loses energy. According to the law of conservation of energy, the energy lost by the electron must go somewhere.

It works the other way, too. If a photon strikes an atom, the atom can absorb the photon and its energy if (and only if) the photon's energy is exactly equal to the difference between two orbital energies. In this case, an electron uses the photon's energy to jump from the smaller orbit up to the larger orbit. This is called a quantum jump.

The electron falls down to a lower orbit and the atom loses energy. A photon carries away the energy lost by the atom.

A photon is absorbed by the atom, which gains the photons energy. The electron uses this energy to jump up to a higher orbit.

## The Schrdinger equation

Wavefunction
A wavefunction is a mathematical function obtained by solving the Schrodinger equation and which contains all the dynamical information about the system

Wave-Particle Duality

Wave-Particle Duality

Wave-Particle Duality
Energi kinetik:

Work function

## The Uncertainty Principle

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that it is impossible to specify simultaneously, with arbitrary precision, both the momentum and the position of a particle

## Applications of Quantum Mechanics

Transistors and semiconductors

## Scanning tunneling microscope

Fluorescent lights
Neon gases gives red coloured light while Krypton gives white coloured lights. This is the working principle of colourful fluorescent lights on the streets.

Lasers
Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

## Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

MRI works because of manipulation of a quantum-mechanical phenomenon called particle spin inside the human body. The magnetic fields produced by the atomic nuclei in the human body are detected and then displayed as an image.

Electron microscopy

Spectrometry
Emission

Absorption

QUESTIONS?