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Attitude Formation and Change

Submitted by-Harpreet singh Aman takkar Hitesh


What is an Attitude?
A learned predisposition to respond to an

object or a class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.

Attitudes are relatively enduring.
Attitudes are situation-related.

Functions of Attitudes
Utilitarian function Ego-defensive function

Knowledge function
Value-expressive function

How do we form attitudes?

Three different paths to attitude formation: Attitudes are created by first creating

Consumer beliefs are the knowledge that a

consumer has about objects, their attributes, and the benefits provided by the objects. Consumer beliefs are created by processing information--cognitive learning.

Forming Attitudes, continued

Attitudes are created directly. Behavioral learning

Attitudes are created by first creating

Consumers respond to strong situational or

environmental forces, and after engaging in the behavior, form attitudes about the experience.

Tricomponent Model
Cognitive component

The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a

combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources. Affective component The emotions or feelings associate with a particular product or brand. Conative component The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object.

Measurement Models of Attitude

Multiattribute model Fishbein and Azjen

Multiattribute Model
Aj = BijIi Where:
i = attribute or product characteristic j= brand

Such that:
A = the consumers attitude score for brand j I = the importance weight given to attribute i by the consumer B = the consumers belief as to the extent to which a satisfactory level of attribute i is offered by brand j

Understanding the Multiattribute Model

All relevant product attributes, based on consumers

perceptions, need to be included in the model to provide dimensionality.

Even though there may be several relevant attributes,

they are not generally equally important. The importance weight of the formula allows adjustment of the importance of each attribute individually.

Understanding the Multiattribute Model...

Beliefs represent the extent to which each product

offers satisfaction for the attribute in question.

Compensatory model.

Simplified Version
Beliefs that the behavior leads to certain outcomes Evaluation of the outcomes Beliefs that specific referents think I should or should not perform the behavior Motivation to comply with the specific referents

Attitude toward the behavior Intention Behavior

Subjective Norm

Attitude-toward-the-Ad Model
Very specific to understanding the impact of

advertising on consumer attitudes about a particular product or brand. Exposure to advertising directly affects beliefs about the ad and brand, and feelings about the ad. Exposure to advertising indirectly affects attitude toward the brand and attitude toward the ad.

How Can Marketers Change Attitudes?

Alter components of multiattribute model

Increase belief ratings for the brand

Increase the importance of a key attribute Decrease the importance of a weak attribute

Add an entirely new attribute

Decrease belief ratings for competitive brands

Changing Attitude

Changing Attitudes...
Changing attitudes directly though behavior Cognitive Dissonance Theories Balance Theory

Social Judgment Theory

Attribution Theory

Balance Theory
Consumers strive for consistency between

interconnected attitudes.
Marketers can influence attitudes by creating

imbalance within the target of persuasion. Motivates consumer to change one or more of the interconnected attitudes to restore balance.

Social Judgment Theory

Consumers use attitudes as a frame of reference to judge new

information. If high involvement: Narrow attitude of acceptance Wide attitude of rejection Assimilation effect Contrast effect If low involvement: Wide attitude of acceptance Wide attitude of noncommitment

Attribution Theory
Consumers make inferences about behaviors,

assign causality--blame or credit--to events on the basis of their or others behaviors. In the process of assigning causality, form attitudes. Marketing implications: Offer high quality products Advertising should emphasize quality. Moderate-sized incentives.