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 These locations were parts of the "Diocese of Cebu" during the time of Calungsod's martyrdom. Calungsod and San Vitores went to Guam tocatechise the native Chamorros. Historical records never mentioned his exact place of origin and merely identified him as "Pedro Calonsor. He likely honed his skills in drawing. In 1668. mastering the Catechism and learning to communicate inSpanish. Calungsod travelled with Spanish Jesuit missionaries to these islands. Calungsod would have been expected to have some aptitude in serving in the Tridentine Mass (now known as the Extraordinary form of the Roman Rite). painting. Loboc in Bohol also makes a claim. and Molo district in Iloilo as probable places of origin. singing. Missionary life was difficult as provisions did not arrive regularly. 1654. was among the exemplary young catechists chosen to accompany the Jesuits in their mission to the Ladrones Islands (Islas de los Ladrones or “Isles of Thieves”). María Ana of Austria. Calungsod. the mission persevered. renamed the Mariana Islands (Las Islas de Mariana) the year before in honour of both the Blessed Virgin Mary and of the Queen Regent of Spain. Despite all these. acting. Few details of his early life prior to missionary work and death are known. El Visayo". then around 14. the jungles and terrain was difficult to traverse. and was able to convert a significant number of locals. • • • . It is probable that he received basic education at a Jesuit boarding school.Early Years and Missionary work • Calungsod (spelled Calonsor in Spanish records) was born ca. and the islands were frequently devastated by typhoons. who funded their voyage. and carpentry as these were necessary in missionary work. Historical research identifies Ginatilan in Cebu. Hinunangan and Hinundayan in Southern Leyte.
Guam on 2 April 1672. many believed the story and held the missionaries responsible. Hirao initially refused. As some sickly Chamorro infants who were baptized eventually died. who was not a Christian. Calungsod and San Vitores came to the village of Tumon.Martrydom • A Chinese named Choco. Choco was readily supported by the macanjas (medicine men) and the urritaos (young males) who despised the missionaries. Determined to kill the missionaries. mindful of the missionaries' kindness towards the natives. Mata'pang went away and tried to enlist another villager. the missionaries gathered the children and some adults of the village at the nearby shore and started chanting with them the tenets of the Catholic religion. They invited Mata'pang to join them. • • . Meanwhile. he became piqued and capitulated. In their search for a runaway companion named Esteban. a criminal from Manila who was exiled in Guam began spreading rumours that the baptismal water used by missionaries was poisonous. Influenced by the calumnies of Choco. during that brief absence of Mata'pang from his hut. San Vitores and Calungsod baptised the baby girl. but when Mata'pang branded him a coward. There they learnt that the wife of the village chiefMatapang gave birth to a daughter. named Hirao. but he shouted back that he was angry with God and was fed up with Christian teachings. the chief strongly opposed. to give Mata'pang some time to calm down. with the consent of her Christian mother. and they immediately went to baptise the child.
who was able to dodge the spears. then Hirao immediately charged towards him and finished him off with machete blow to the head. brought them out to sea on their proas and threw them into the water.• • • When Mata'pang learnt of his daughter's baptism. he became even more furious. San Vitores however banned his companions to carry arms. Calungsod was hit in the chest by a spear and he fell to the ground. Those who knew Calungsod personally meanwhile believed that he could have defeated the aggressors with weapons. Both assassins then denuded the corpses of Calungsod and San Vitores. referring to the religious persecution endured by the person in evangelisation. The Catholic Church considers Calungsod's martyrdom as committed In Odium Fidei ('In Hatred of the Faith'). tied large stones to their feet.[ . San Vitores absolved Calungsod before he too was killed. Witnesses claim that Calungsod could have escaped the attack. He violently hurled spears first at Pedro. Mata'pang took San Vitores' crucifix and pounded it with a stone whilst blaspheming God. but did not want to leave San Vitores alone.
was completed in 1999.Beatification • A month after the martyrdom of San Vitores and Calungsod. The positio. Political and religious turmoil. Cardinal Vidal appointed Fr Ildebrando Leyson as vice-postulator for the cause. Wanting to include young Asian laypersons in his first beatification for the Jubilee Year 2000. a process for beatification was initiated but only for San Vitores. • • . When Hagåtña was preparing for its 20th anniversary as a diocese in 1981. the 1673 beatification cause of Padre Diego Luís de San Vitores was rediscovered in old manuscripts and revived until San Vitores was finally beatified on 6 October 1985. the Sacred Congregation for the Causes of Saints approved the acta of the diocesan beatification process. which relied heavily on the documentation of San Vitores' beatification. tasked with compiling a Positio Super Martyrio (position regarding the martyrdom) to be scrutinised by the Congregation. however. John Paul II paid particular attention to the cause of Calungsod. In 1980. That same year. In March 1997. setting his beatification for 5 March 2000 at Saint Peter's Square in Rome. delayed and halted the process. then-Cebu Archbishop Ricardo Cardinal Vidal asked permission from the Vatican to initiate the beatification and canonisation cause of Pedro Calungsod. he approved the decree super martyrio (concerning the martyrdom) of Calungsod. This gave recognition to Calungsod. paving the way for his own beatification. In January 2000.
A wooden image of Calungsod approved by and flown in from the Archdiocese of Cebu was displayed for public veneration. but as a "good soldier of Christ" preferred to die at the missionary's side. a Triduum of masses in honour of Calungsod were celebrated in the Basilica of Saint Augustine. while Philippine Vice-President Jejomar Binay led the Philippine delegation along with Ambassador to the Holy See.Mercedes Arrastia Tuason. In a spirit of faith. Pedro willingly accepted the challenge put to him by Fr. Pedro Calungsod declared himself unwaveringly for Christ and responded generously to his call. In the face of imminent danger. Diego de San Vitores to join him on the Mission to the Chamorros. marked by strong Eucharistic and Marian devotion. Young people today can draw encouragement and strength from the example of Pedro..From his childhood.” Shortly before his scheduled canonisation.• • • Regarding Calungsod's charitable works and virtuous deeds. Leaving family and friends behind.. whose love of Jesus inspired him to devote his teenage years to teaching the faith as a lay catechist. Diego. . the Church of the Gesù and the Papal Basilica of Saint Mary Major from 18-20 October. Pedro undertook the demanding work asked of him and bravely faced the many obstacles and difficulties he met. Pedro would not forsake Fr. Cardinal Gaudencio Rosales presided over the 20 October mass. Archbishop Emeritus of Manila. Pope John Paul II declared: “.
 • . The College of Cardinals were then sent a dossier on the new saints. On 18 February 2012. and they were asked to indicate their approval.Sainthood • On 19 December 2011. when a woman from Leyte who was pronounced clinically dead by accredited physicians two hours after a heart attack was revived when an attending physician invoked Calungsod's intercession. The recognised miracle dates from 26 March 2003. after the Consistory for the Creation of Cardinals. The Pope set the date for the canonization on 21 October 2012 (World Mission Sunday). the Holy See officially approved the miracle qualifying Calungsod for sainthood by the Roman Catholic Church. Cardinal Angelo Amato presided over the declaration ceremony on behalf of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints. 340 years after Calungsod's death. He later revealed that Pope Benedict XVI approved and signed the official promulgation decrees recognising the miracles as authentic and worthy of belief. Cardinal Amato formally petitioned Pope Benedict XVI to announce the canonization of the new saints.
• • On 21 October 2012. a second-class relic used to hack Calungsod's head and neck however was retrieved by Cardinal Ricardo Vidal from Guam. . a special vestment reserved only for the pontiff in the most solemn and rare liturgical occasions. Calungsod is the second Filipino to be declared a saint by the Roman Catholic Church.  The Pope donned a pearl-studded mitre and a cream pleated Papal fanon. Filipino Cardinal Ricardo Jamin Vidal concelebrated with Pope Benedict XVI at the official canonisation Mass for Calungsod while among the seven new saints canonised. Pope Benedict XVI canonized Calungsod in Saint Peter's Square. The Roman Martyrology celebrates Calungsod's feast along with Blessed Diego Luis de San Vitores every 2 April. Calungsod was the only one without a first class relic exposed for veneration since his body was thrown into the sea. Pope Benedict XVImaintained that Calungsod received the Sacrament of Absolution from Blessed Diego Luis de San Vitores before his martyrdom and death. The cutlass knife. After Saint Lorenzo Ruiz. During the papal homily.
Cebu provided a longstanding record of Calonsor and Calungsod natives from their area. Cebu and was the father of Pedro Calungsod. According to the Parish Pastoral Council William Pancho of Ginatilan.Birthpalce issue • Various areas in the Visayan islands make the claim from which Pedro Calungsod was born and raised. there were three Calungsod brothers: • Valerio Calungsor who migrated to Iloilo • Casimiro Calungsor who migrated to Bohol • Pablo Calungsor who remained in Ginatilan. . Cebu. An extensive research provided by the census research of Ginatilan. there is a strong claim that in the mid 1600s. from which a strong claim had the most Calungsod natives originating since Filipino-Spanish era since the late 1700s.
no province except for Ginatilan.• In a public televised interview with ABS-CBN chief correspondent and newscaster Korina Sanchez. El Visayo" as his native description. Cebu wanted to make a claim on his place of birth. • As a result. since Spanish records only indicate the words "Pedro Calonsor. Bohol. Consequently. when the canonization was approved. Leyte. he stated that all Visayan provinces were under the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of the Archdiocese of Cebu during the Filipino-Spanish era. Cardinal Ricardo Jamin Vidal emphasized his dismay that when the original beatification of Pedro Calungsod began in 1980's. Furthermore. Cardinal Vidal ruled that he will not establish a definitive judgment on his birthplace. Samar. . and Iloilo and various Mindanao provinces wanted to claim Calungsod's official birthplace. Catholic bishops from the provinces of Cebu.
described the male Visayan indios of his time as usually more corpulent. and that they already started to wear camisas (shirts) and calzones (knee-breeches). S. that their noses were flat. of pleasing countenance and light-skinned. and usually dark loose trousers. he is depicted in mid-stride. • . To indicate his missionary status.J. His most popular attributes are the martyr's palm pressed to his chest and the Doctrina Christiana. that their faces were usually round and of fine proportions. that they— especially the youth—wore their hair a little bit long. In some early statues. better built and somewhat taller than the Tagalogs in Luzon.Iconography • It is not known exactly what Calungsod looked like. that their eyes and hair were black. as no contemporary depictions survive. the instruments of his death. who also worked in the Visayas in the 1590s. Calungsod is sometimes shown with a spear and catana (cutlass). Pedro Chirino. occasionally also bearing a rosary or crucifix. that their skin was light brown in color. Calungsod is often depicted as a teenaged young man wearing a camisa de chino that is sometimes bloodied. similarly described the Visayans as well-built. The writer Alcina. who was a contemporary of Pedro Calungsod..
now enshrined at the Archdiocesan Shrine of Nuestro Padré Jesús de Nazareno of the Society of the Angel of Peace in Cansojong. and designer Eduardo Castrillo in 1994 for the Heritage of Cebu Monument in Parian. the 17-year old Ronald Tubid of Oton. Cebu. Sculptors Francisco dela Victoria and Vicente Gulane of Cebu and Justino Cagayat Jr. was chosen to model for a portrait of Calungsod. a replica of the catana used to kill him is set into the arm of the statue. Images . The Del Casal portrait is the first to feature a Christogram. ofPaete. Laguna. with one brought to Rome and blessed by John Paul II. a rosary. Several statues of Calungsod were also commissioned for the beatification. which was chosen as the official portrait for Calungsod. During the novena before his feast day. The original painting is now enshrined at the Archdiocesan Shrine of Blessed Pedro Calungsod in Cebu City. the seal of the Society of Jesus with which he was affiliated. Another image is permanently enshrined at the Archdiocesan Shrine of Blessed Pedro Calungsod in Cebu City. sculptor. Iloilo. Both images also depict Calungsod wearing a white camisa and trousers. with his characteristic palm.• • • • • In art The first portraits of Pedro Calungsod were drawings done by award-winning artist. created statues of Calungsod in 1997 and 1999 respectively. This then became the basis for Rafael del Casal's painting in 1999. Talisay City. This became the "Pilgrim Image". and a crucifix pressed to his breast. When the Archdiocese of Manila in 1998 published the pamphlet Pedro Calungsod: Young Visayan "Proto-Martyr" by Jesuit theologian Catalino Arevalo. A bronze statue of Calungsod was made and now forms part of the monument.
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