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AYŞE KULÇU ÇAĞDAŞ DEMİRCİ
What are Cosmic rays? History of Cosmic Rays Discovery of Cosmic Rays How can We Detect Them? What can we learn from them? Cosmic Rays Effects
Introduction Cosmic rays are high energy charged particles, in outer space, that travel at nearly the speed of light and strike the Earth from all directions Most cosmic rays are the nuclei of atoms, ranging from the lightest to the heaviest elements in the periodic table. Cosmic rays also include high energy electrons, positrons, and other subatomic particles Their origin is still a mystery more than 90 years after their discovery
What are cosmic rays? ______________
What are cosmic rays (CRs)?
• As it turns out, these charged particles are atomic nucleons zooming through space
– Called “primary” CRs – Mostly protons or a (He) nuclei (other elements too, in much shorter supply)
• When these hit another nucleus in the atmosphere and stop, more particles are knocked downward, this is called “shower”
– Particles in the shower are called “secondary” CRs
89% protons (hydrogen nuclei)
10% Helium nuclei
1 % Electrons, Protons, Neutrons
History of Cosmic Rays _______
History of Cosmic Rays: 1785-1902
• 1785 Charles Coulomb
– Discovered that charged body in the air becomes discharged “there are ions in the atmosphere”
1902 Rutherford, McLennan, Burton
– Discovered that penetrating radiation passes through the atmosphere
History of Cosmic Rays: 1912
1912 Victor Hess
sources of radiation – took balloon up to 5000 meters
radiation increased after 2500
could be attributed to the fact that there was less atmosphere above to shield him from radiation
he discovered that radiation is coming from space ... “cosmic radiation”
Nobel Prize in 1936
Hess after his flight, which he took without breathing apparatus in very cold and thin air! 9
History of Cosmic Rays: 1933-1937
• 1933 Sir Arthur Compton
– Radiation intensity depends on magnetic latitude
http://www.sciencebulletins.amnh.org search: Earth’s magnetic shield
• 1937 Street and Stevenson
– Discovery of the muon particle in cosmic rays (207 x heavier than an electron)
History of Cosmic Rays: 1938
• Pierre Auger and Roland Maze
– Rays in detectors separated by 20m (later 200m) arrive simultaneously
Cosmic-ray tracks in astronaut helmets
The conic shape is partly the result of the etching process
History of Cosmic Rays: 1982
• Sekido and Elliot
– Gave the first correct explanation of what Cosmic Rays are: ionized atoms (nuclei) from space hitting the atmosphere
Interaction with the Earth’s Atmosphere
• When cosmic ray particles enter the Earth's atmosphere they collide with molecules, mainly oxygen and nitrogen, to produce an air shower. • The general idea is shown in the next figure which shows a cosmic ray shower produced by a high energy proton of cosmic ray origin striking an atmospheric molecule.
Interaction with the Earth’s Atmosphere
“Primary” Cosmic Ray (Ion, for example a proton)
p+ “Secondary” Cosmic Rays...
(about 50 produced after first collision)
Electromagnetic Shower (mainly g-rays)
Hadronic Shower (mainly muons and neutrinos reach earth’s surface)
How can we detect cosmic rays?
How can we detect cosmic rays?
To “catch” a cosmic ray, detectors are spread out over a large area in hopes that a cosmic ray will hit that area.
How do we detect cosmic rays?
• To detect primaries, observatories are put in space
– Good: it catches the original cosmic rays – Bad: it is an expensive detector that is too small to “catch” a lot of CRs
• To detect secondary showers, observatories are put on the ground
– Good: they are cheaper, bigger, and detect a lot more! – Bad: it takes some work to figure out what the primary is like. But it can be done to some extent! – Can either detect the particles, or look for the light as those particles bounce off the air and create fluorescence
When it comes to CR detectors… BIGGER = BETTER
– They catch more cosmic rays overall – Detect more of the ones that are rare! Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) with more than 1018 eV are found only one per square km per century! – Big area can detect larger shower from higher-energy CRs
The West Desert provides an ideal location for fluorescence observations. An altitude of ~4,500 feet where the nearest population centers are more than 30 miles away Light pollution is mostly blocked by the surrounding mountains. For 347 days per year, the visibility is better than 10 miles. 20
Particle detector arrays
Casa Mia, Utah (pictured below): 1089 detectors spaced 15 meters apart
STACEE: Albuquerque, New Mexico
STACEE uses some of the facility's 212 heliostats to collect Cherenkov light. Cherenkov light is like a sonic boom, but for light. It’s produced by electrons in air showers generated by high energy gamma rays.
Air scintillation detector
1981 – 1992: Fly’s Eye, Utah 1999 - present: HiRes, same site
2 detector systems for stereo view 42 and 22 mirrors a 2m diameter Each mirror reflects light into 256 photomultipliers Sees showers up to 20-30 km high
Pierre Auger Project
The Pierre Auger Observatory will have two sites, one in the northern hemisphere and the other in the south, allowing scientists to view ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) over the entire sky The first is currently under construction in the southern hemisphere (Argentina) and a second one is planned for North America. It will comprise 1600 surface detectors covering an area roughly the size of Rhode Island (3000 square kilometers)
The Auger Project already observes 500 showers/day
Fly’s eye principle
What can we learn from Cosmic Rays?
What elements are in the universe Where they come from How they are produced
What the elements are in the universe – There are more cosmic rays of certain elements than there
• Due to collisions with other atoms somewhere in space! • These collisions are a major source of lithium, beryllium and boron in the universe
Cosmic ray (proton or α)
Li, Be or B
C, N, or O (He in early universe)
Where do cosmic rays come from?
• Stars produce low-energy CRs
e.g., “Solar wind” ejects protons, a and other particles
• Supernovae produce mediumenergy CRs
Ordinary matter is made of atoms
The protons and neutrons can be thought of being made up of quarks
(in reality they contain also gluons and many more quarks)
Pions are also made up of quarks
They are produced as secondary CRs
Pion p+ = ud p- = du 26 ns lifetime – decay into
26 ns lifetime – decay into m- , um
p0 = uu + dd
1 x 10-17 s lifetime – decay
are produced when pions decay... They are the secondary cosmic rays that reach the Earth’s surface. We look for them to detect that a primary cosmic ray has reached Earth’s atmosphere
• Changes in atmospheric chemistry • Effect on electronics • Role in lightning (cloud formation)
• Cosmic rays are nuclei zooming through space • Primary cosmic rays hit the upper atmosphere, releasing showers of secondary cosmic rays
• The Universe is commonly defined as the totality of existence, including planets, stars, galaxies, the contents of intergalactic space, and all matter and energy. The simply definition of the universe is limited to what can be observed. • Scientific observation of the Universe, the observable part of which is about 93 billion light years in diameter, has led to inferences of its earlier stages. • There are various multiverse hypotheses, in which physicists have suggested that the Universe might be one among many universes that likewise exist. The farthest distance that it is theoretically possible for humans to see is described as the observable Universe. Observations have shown that the Universe appears to be expanding at an accelerating rate, and a number of models have arisen to predict its ultimate fate.
• According to the Big Bang, the Universe expanded from an extremely hot dense phase, in which all the matter and energy of the observable Universe was concentrated,that’s called as planck epoch. Since the Planck epoch, the Universe has been expanding to its present form, possibly with a brief period (less than 10−32 seconds) of cosmic inflation. Several independent experimental measurements support this theoretical expansion and, more generally, the Big Bang theory. Recent observations indicate that this expansion is accelerating because of dark energy, and that most of the matter in the Universe may be in a form which cannot be detected by present instruments, called dark matter. The common use of the "dark matter" and "dark energy" placeholder names for the unknown entities purported to account for about 95% of the mass-energy density of the Universe demonstrates the present observational and conceptual shortcomings and uncertainties concerning the nature and ultimate fate of the Universe.
• On 21 March 2013, the European-led research team behind the Planck cosmology probe released the mission's all-sky map of the cosmic microwave background. The map suggests the universe is slightly older than thought. According to the map, subtle fluctuations in temperature were imprinted on the deep sky when the cosmos was about 370,000 years old. According to the team, the universe is 13.798 ± 0.037 billion years old and contains 4.9% ordinary matter, 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy.
• The size of the Universe is unknown; it may be infinite. The region visible from Earth (the observable universe) is a sphere with a radius of about 46 billion light years, based on where the expansion of space has taken the most distant objects observed. For comparison, the diameter of a typical galaxy is 30,000 light-years, and the typical distance between two neighboring galaxies is 3 million light-years. As an example, the Milky Way Galaxy is roughly 100,000 light years in diameter, and the nearest sister galaxy to the Milky Way, the Andromeda Galaxy, is located roughly 2.5 million light years away.There are probably more than 100 billion galaxies in the observable Universe. A 2010 study by astronomers estimated that the observable Universe contains 300 sextillion stars.
• The present overall density of the Universe is very low, roughly 9.9 × 10−30 grams per cubic centimetre. This mass-energy appears to consist of 73% dark energy, 23% cold dark matter and 4% ordinary matter. Thus the density of atoms is on the order of a single hydrogen atom for every four cubic meters of volume. The properties of dark energy and dark matter are largely unknown. Dark matter gravitates as ordinary matter, and thus works to slow the expansion of the Universe; by contrast, dark energy accelerates its expansion.
EQUILIBRIUM OF PARTICLE AND ANTIPARTICLE
• Cosmology is all about particles and high energy physics. The starting point of the universe is big bang. And the main part of the big bang is equilibrium of particle and antiparticle. Collision of particles or high energy rays expose antiparticles with same number of particles. That is one of the main rule of physics. As a result of that,in the start of the universe , the number of particles and antiparticles must be equal. But when a particle and antiparticle collide at once destroy each other and forms high energy rays. That is, after big bang all universe should form cosmic rays, but it didn’t happen. Because of one percent in a billion excess matter symmetry. All galaxies, stars, and universe are created by this one percent of a billion.
• Dark Matter is matter that we cannot see. It neither emits nor reflects any light. If we can’t see it, how do we know it exists? Scientists can measure dark matter indirectly by observing its gravitational effects in a variety of ways. Dark matter is one of the most fascinating mysteries in science • In astronomy and cosmology, dark matter is a type of matter hypothesized to account for a large part of the total mass in the universe. Dark matter cannot be seen directly with telescopes; evidently it neither emits nor absorbs light or other electromagnetic radiation at any significant level. Instead, its existence and properties are inferred from its gravitational effects on visible matter, radiation, and the large-scale structure of the universe. According to the Planck mission team, and based on the standard model of cosmology, the total mass– energy of the universe contains 4.9% ordinary matter, 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy. Thus, dark matter is estimated to constitute 84.5% of the total matter in the universe.
• Dark matter came to the attention of astrophysicists due to discrepancies between the mass of large astronomical objects determined from their gravitational effects, and the mass calculated from the "luminous matter" they contain: stars, gas and dust. It was first postulated by Jan Oort in 1932 to account for the orbital velocities of stars in the Milky Way, and by Fritz Zwicky in 1933 to account for evidence of "missing mass" in the orbital velocities of galaxies in clusters. Subsequently, many other observations have indicated the presence of dark matter in the universe, including the rotational speeds of galaxies by Vera Rubin, in the 1960s–1970s, gravitational lensing of background objects by galaxy clusters such as the Bullet Cluster, the temperature distribution of hot gas in galaxies and clusters of galaxies, and more recently the pattern of anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. According to consensus among cosmologists, dark matter is composed primarily of a not yet characterized type of subatomic particle. The search for this particle, by a variety of means, is one of the major efforts in particle physics today.
• Although the existence of dark matter is generally accepted by the mainstream scientific community, there is no generally agreed direct detection of it. Other theories including MOND and TeVeS, are some alternative theories of gravity proposed to try to explain the anomalies for which dark matter is intended to account. • On 3 April 2013, NASA scientists reported that hints of dark matter may have been detected by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station. According to the scientists, "The first results from the space-borne Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer confirm an unexplained excess of high-energy positrons in Earth-bound cosmic rays.
Percents of Universe
• Baryons (4%) • Dark matter (23%) • Dark energy: 73% • Massive neutrinos: 0.1%
• In physical cosmology and astronomy, dark energy is a hypothetical form of energy that permeates all of space and tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe. Dark energy is the most accepted hypothesis to explain observations since the 1990s that indicate that the universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. According to the Planck mission team, and based on the standard model of cosmology, the total mass– energy of the universe contains 4.9% ordinary matter, 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy. • Many things about the nature of dark energy remain matters of speculation. The evidence for dark energy is indirect. However, it comes from three independent sources. These are ; • Distance measurements and their relation to redshift, which suggest the universe has expanded more in the last half of its life. • The theoretical need for a type of additional energy that is not matter or dark matter to form our observationally flat universe (absence of any detectable global curvature), and
• It can be inferred from measures of large scale wavepatterns of mass density in the universe. • Dark energy is thought to be very homogeneous, not very dense and is not known to interact through any of the fundamental forces other than gravity. Since it is quite rarefied—roughly 10−29 g/cm3—it is unlikely to be detectable in laboratory experiments. Dark energy can have such a profound effect on the universe, making up 74% of universal density, only because it uniformly fills otherwise empty space. The two leading models are a cosmological constant and quintessence. Both models include the common characteristic that dark energy must have negative pressure.
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