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Presented To:

Engr . Nosheen Zaib

Presented By: Noor-ul-Huda Sanila Khalid Tehmina Hassan Maria Iqbal CE-46-2012 CE-47-2012 CE-48-2012 CE-49-2012

Dam Types of dams Terminologies Dams in Pakistan Forces acting on dams Geological investigation Walls in dams Retaining wall

Noor-ul-Huda CE-46-2012

Dams Types of dams Terminologies

Dams are barriers which are constructed across river valleys to store water. They are built mainly to control floods , for irrigating lands , for generating electricity, and for supplying water to industries and cities . A dam that serves more than one purpose is called a MULTIPURPOSE DAM


Gravity dam
It is massive structure of concrete or masonry which stands by its own weight . Generally sound foundation rock is required for the construction of gravity dams.

Arch dam
It is an shaped structure of single concrete walls , the convex side of which faces upstream The arch dam transmits the forces the abutments by the arch action Very strong abutment rocks are required for constructing arch dams.

Buttress dam
These dams are constructed at the downstream side to support an upstream deck of reinforced concrete .

These are usually constructed on good foundation rock.

Earth dam
The earth dams are constructed mainly by soil or earth .
These dams can be built on earth or poor rock condition.

Heel of a dam.

Toe of dam.
Axis of dam. Abutments.


Heel of dam
The portion of dam that touches the ground on upstream side , is called the heel of dam .

Toe of dam

The portion of dam that touches the ground on downstream side is called toe of the dam.

Axis of dam

It is an imaginary line that passes along the length of the dam through its center .


The slopping sides of a valley upon which the sides of dam are keyed , are called abutment.

Grouting is method in which suitable mixture of cement-water , cement-calcium , cement clay ,asphaltic emulsion , or other material is injected into rock to seal the openings. Grouting mixture is usually pumped through holes drilled in the rocks for this purpose .

Sanila Khalid CE-47-2012

Dams in Pakistan Forces acting on dam

Geological Investegation Depth of filling Presence of faults

Dams in Pakistan
Three main dams Mangla Tarbela Warsak Constructed for the purpose of 1- Generating electricity 2-Irrigating agricultural land

Tarbela Dam
The world's largest earthfilled dam on one of the world's most important rivers- the Indus. The dam was completed in 1976 at a cost of Rs.18.5 billion. It is the biggest hydral power station in Pakistan having a capacity of generating 3,478 MW of electricity.

Mangla Dam
The Mangla Dam on the River Jhelum is one of the longest earth-fill dams in the world. Also used for power generation. The main spillway has a normal service capacity of 900,000 cusecs.

The multi-purpose Warsak Dam on River Kabul It has a total generating capacity of 240,000 KW and will eventually serve to irrigate 110,000 acres of land.

Khanpur Dam
This beautiful lake/dam is 48 km from Islamabad. It is a multi-purpose project which supplies drinking water to Islamabad and Rawalpindi and irrigation water to NWFP.

Forces acting on dam

Water pressure
Pressure of reservoir water tends to displace the dam horizontally. Weight of dam which acts downward and tends to key the dam in position. Resultant of both forces indicate that when reservoir is full ,the toe of the dam is overloaded and the Heel is relieved . To make the dam stable , the ratio b/w forces has to be kept smaller.

Pore pressure
The water entering in permeable rocks below the dam , exerts an upward pressure on the base of the dam . this pressure which is equivalent to the hydrostatic pressure , is called pore pressure. It acts against the weight of the dam and thus helps in sliding or overturning it...

Geological Investigation

Depth and character of filling the river bed Presence of fault Abutment problems Existence of problem rocks in the foundation Dam alignment in the bedded rock

Depth of filling
The sound bed rock in the river valley are often covered up with a layer of alluvium of variable thickness. by knowing the state of development attained by the valley due to geological action of the river. By geophysical investigation. By putting drill holes at suitable points. In a river valley the existence of a concealed fault is always expected.

Presence of faults
Faults are most troublesome if they are encountered across the length of the dam. The fault zone cause the following trouble: I. It is difficult to seal the fault zone and prevent leakage of water from the reservoir at reasonable cost . II. The rocks may weather upto a great depth along a fault zone.this requires digging and scraping of the weathered rock to a great depth,and refilling the trench with concrete.

iii. The crushed and fissured rocks,that exist along a fault in the foundation,have to be grouted intensively to increase its bearing strength. iv. Along a fault some displacement of strata is always expected,particularly during an earthquake.such a movement will not only reopen the fault fisher,but also rupture the dam.

Tehmina Hasan CE-48-2012

Abutment problems
Existence of problem rocks in the foundation

Abutment problems
Such problems mainly occur due to the orientation of joints and weak zones present in the abutments. If weak zone lie parallel to the thrust of water in the reservoir,the stability of the structure may be in danger. The rocks that exist in the abutment of anarch dam,should be strong enough to resist the pressure without being crushed.

Existence of problem rocks in the foundation

Soft shales Solouble rocks like limestone,dolomite,marbels etc Highly jointed and permeable rocks.

Dams on shales
Two types i. Cementation shales ii. Compaction shales

The cementation shales are stronger and do not disintegrated when subjected to wetting and drying. The compaction shales are soft and slake,have low bearing capacity and become plastic when wetted. Swelling and caving may result during excavation of the foundation which may cause trouble. To avoid this, concrete and asphalts are used.

Dams on soluble rocks

Limestone, dolomite and marbles. Sufficiently strong to support the weight of dam. Sometimes cavities are present in these rocks,and leakage occur on such a large scale that the dam cannot hold water for long. Its treatment is very coastly.

Dams on jointed and permeable rocks

They are highly fissured ,jointed and permeable rocks exist below the dam,they will not only cause leakage,but also built uplift pressure at the base of the dam. Uplift pressure acts opposite to the weight of the structure and may cause sliding. Such rocks may be consolidated by grouting.

Maria Iqbal CE-49-2012

Dam alignment in bedded rocks

Walls in dams Retaining wall

Dam alignment in bedded rocks

Rock dipping upstream Rock dipping downstream Dams aligned across the strike of rock beds

Dams on rock dipping upstream

represent ideal foundation conditions. capable of supporting the weight of the dam and the pressure of the reservoir does not allow the water in the reservoir to percolate below the dam therefore, the leakage of water and the development of uplift pressure will be minimum.

Dams on rocks dipping downstream

Dams constructed on rocks dipping downstream may not be safe because of the following difficulties: i. The percolation of water may lubricate the junction of rock beds. ii. The water percolating through the strata dissolves the cementing materials,and increases the size of openings by mechanical erosion.

iii. The water which enters in the openings of the rocks below the dams,causes the development of uplift pressure which decreases the stability of structure. iv. The resultant of the weight of thedam and pressure of the reservoir water,acts more or less parallel to the bedding planes ans endangers the stability of the dam.

Dams aligned across the strike of rocks

its foundation will be on different rock types of varying characters. chances of differential settelement of the dam serious leakage of water from the reservoir. therefore, care should be taken to examine the texture and lithology of different rock beds.

Walls in Dams