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You are on page 1of 92

MULTISTOREY BUILDING

PRESENTED BY

SANTHOSH T S

SUJAY RAGHAVENDRA N

SUBRAMANYA M B

VINAY N

GUIDED BY

JEEVAN N

Lecturer

BIT, Bangalore

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

TYPE OF STRUCTURE

PRELIMINARY DESIGN

LOADINGS

ANALYSIS

DESIGN

CONCLUSION

REFERENCE

INTRODUCTION

The multistoried buildings have been designed by considering following concept

and design tools.

Economy

Serviceability

METHODS OF ANALYSIS

Kanis method

STAAD PRO.

Engineers.

Analysis,

Design,

design some

STAAD Pro offers various mode of operation such as pre processing ,post

DATA

Steel : Fe415

SBC :250KN/m2

Types of loads

ANALYSIS

Model

Assigning of Supports

Perform Analysis

Run Analysis

Output

Model of Structure

For beams

230 230mm

230 450mm

For columns

Slab thickness

300 600mm

120mm

Size of beam and column selected is initially assumed and then checked in

design whether it is safe or has to be redimensioned.

Column orientation can be done with the help of beta angle option in properties

tool bar.

SUPPORT SPECIFICATIONS:

releases.

Supports are provided at the column to disperse the load to the soil.

LOADING CALCULATIONS

Floor finish

Live load for residential

building (as IS-875 Part-2)

Partition wall load

3KN/m

1.25KN/m

2KN/m

1KN/m

__________

7.25KN/m

Wall load = t*h*d = 0.23*2.7*1811.178KN/m

Where t wall thickness in m

h height of floor in m

d density of brick in KN/m

Where t wall thickness in m

h height of floor in m

d density of brick in KN/m

Dead load is calculated and live load is taken from IS-875 (Part-I and Part-II) code

of practice for design loads.

The slab load is given by floor with y range option in load command by entering the

diagonal co-ordinates of that particular slab.

Stair case, toilet and terrace loads are given by selecting specific area.

FLOOR LOAD

ROOF LOAD

WALL LOAD

To take Joint Weight Separate window is opened and then wind load is deleted in

that window . In this window only dead load and live load is taken and then all the

nodes should be pinned except the fixed support at the bottom and then combination

should be given.

Combination=(DL+0.5LL)

Combination=(DL+0.25LL)

combination shall be accounted

1.5(DL+LL)

1.2( DL+LL EL)

1.5(DL EL)

0.9DL 1.5EL

3D MODEL OF STRUCTURE

PERFORMING ANALYSIS:

Analysis is done for the primary and combination loading conditions provided.

Depending on the type of analysis option selected, different types of output files

are generated during the analysis process.

If there are no errors in the input, the analysis is successfully completed. The

extensive facilities of the Post-processing mode can then be used to view the

results graphically and numerically

efficiency

Design of Slabs

Design of Beams

Design of Columns

Design of Staircase

Design of Footing

DESIGN OF SLABS

SLABS

ONE WAY SLABS are those supported continuously on the opposite sides so that

the loads are carried along one direction only.

TWO WAY SLABS are those slabs that are supported continuously on all four

sides and are of such dimensions that

along both direction

moments at mid span. Hence the design is required at all critical sections.

Design procedure

Assume a depth of l/30 th span.

Effective span shall be found as explained in Clause 22.2 Pg 34&35 is 456:2000

Find design moment and shear force.

Design for moment .

Check for shear.

Check for deflection control.

Design main steel and distribution steel.

Sketch reinforcement details.

Dimension

Along X Lx

Along Z Ly

Bending moment coefficients for rectangular panels supported on four sides with

provision for torsion at corners are given in table 26 of IS 456:2000

Bending moments per unit width in a slab are given by

2

M x = x w l x

2

M y = y w l x

Moments are factored.

Check for depth of slab

d= ((Mmax)/(0.138*fck*b d) )0.5

Then provide main reinforcement by calculating Ast

along X direction

along Z direction

determine pt=100Ast/bd

from table 19 Pg 73 IS 456; find c

Since thickness of slab is less than 150 mm, enhance factor k=1.3 has to

provided

now v = Vu/bd

If v< c< cmax then shear reinforcement is not required.

Check for deflection control

for continuous slab (l/d)basic=26

if (l/d)provided < (l/d) max deflection control is satisfactory.

Take care of crack width control

Provide reinforcement in edge strip, parallel to that edge with the

minimum requirement=12% of overall depth

TORSION REINFORCEMENT

Provide torsion reinforcements at corners where two discontinuous

edges meet.

Size of mesh = (1/5) short span

Area of torsional reinforcement = (3/4)Ast max

Slab End condition

no

Dimension

c/c

m

ly/lx

slab

mm

span

Along

shorter

direction

10mm@

280c/c

Reinforcement @ support

Along

Along

longer

shorter

directio

direction

n

10mm@ 10mm@

2 50c/c 280c/c

Along longer

direction

One short

4.545X3.605

edge

discontinuous

1.26

Two way

120

10mm@

250c/c

1.12

Two way

120

0c/c

250c/c 280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

1.12

Two way

120

0c/c

250c/c 280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

One short

4.545X3.645

edge

discontinuous

1.25

Two way

120

0c/c

250c/c 280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

1.13

Two way

120

0c/c

250c/c 280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

1.13

Two way

120

0c/c

250c/c 280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

1.25

Two way

120

0c/c

250c/c 280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

One short

3.070X3.645

edge

discontinuous

1.19

Two way

120

0c/c

250c/c 280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

Distribution

bars

One short

edge

discontinuous

3.180X

4.545

1.43

Two

way

120

10mm@280c/c

10mm@250c/c 10mm@

280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

10

Interior Panel

3.180X

3.219

1.01

Two

way

120

10mm@280c/c

10mm@250c/c 10mm@

280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

11

Interior Panel

3.180X

3.221

1.01

Two

way

120

10mm@280c/c

10mm@250c/c 10mm@

280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

12

Interior Panel

3.180X

4.545

1.43

Two

way

120

10mm@280c/c

10mm@250c/c 10mm@

280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

13

One short

edge

discontinuous

3.070X

3.180

1.03

Two

way

120

10mm@280c/c

10mm@250c/c 10mm@

280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

14

One short

edge

discontinuous

1.835X

3.070

Two

way

120

10mm@280c/c

10mm@250c/c 10mm@

280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

15

Interior Panel

3.605X

4.545

1.26

Two

way

120

10mm@280c/c

10mm@250c/c 10mm@

280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

16

One short

edge

discontinuous

3.070X

3.605

1.17

Two

way

120

10mm@280c/c

10mm@250c/c 10mm@

280c/c

10mm@

250c/c

1.315X

4.545

10mm@300c/c

8mm@340

c/c

17

One way slab

18

1.315X

3.219

10mm@300c/c

8mm@340

c/c

19

1.315X

3.221

10mm@300c/c

8mm@340

c/c

DESIGN OF BEAMS

Charts 1-18 give the moment of resistance /meter width for varying depths &

varying % of steel, for various values of fck (15, 20) using fy=250,415,500.

Tables 1-4 of SP-16 give the reinforcements percentage needed for various values

of Mu/bd2 & fy, for fck = 15, 20, 25, 30.

Tables 5-44 of SP-16 give the moment of resistance /meter width of various

thickness of slabs for different bar diameters and spacing for various values of fy

and fck

Using IS 456:2000

The critical sections for design are usually at supports and in the midspan.

IS 456:2000 permits use of design bending moment and shear force coefficients

in Clause 22.5.1 and table12 & 13 Pg 36, but in our case we have ready BM and

SF at various c/s by STAAD results.

Factored moments and shear forces are taken.

Design of longitudinal reinforcements

If Mu>Mulim the section has to be reinforced as doubly reinforced.

we can calculate Ast required at various c/s at supports, at midspan

Shear reinforcements are provided in the form of stirrups-2 legged or 4 legged

Check for deflection is done. if (l/d)provided < (l/d) max

deflection control is

satisfactory. Modification factors kt, kc, kf are given in fig 4,5,6 pg 38 IS456

Clear cover -25 mm

CLASSIFICATION OF BEAMS

Type of beam

Size of the

Max +ve BM

Max ve BM

Max shear

beam

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

Force

(mm)

(KN)

811,821,831,842,843,844,984,845,846,987,848,849,820,840

,219,224,314,319,409,414,504,509

B1

B2

B3

B4

B5

841,1172,1173,850,235,425,520

861,911,961,981,991,921,931,881,891,862,882,892,912,922

,932,962,982,992,913,933,864,894,914,934,964,994,905,91

5,945,955,906,916,946,956,867,897,917,937,96,997,918,93

8,869,889,899,919,929,939,969,125,129,130,230,317,325,3

27,330,412,420,422,1170,507,515,517599,600,602,604,605,

1041,995,996,1050,227,322,417,512

1011,1021,1031,1043,887,1048,

1049,1020,1040,220,225,315,320,

410,415,505,510,971,871,972,893,

993,884,974,1044,815,835,816,836

847,977,1047,898,998,979,830,880

980,115,120,127,222,590,595,596,

132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,1148,228,229,231,23

3,234, 1150,323,324,326,328,329,418,419

421,423,1182,1175,1178,513,514,

516,518,519,607,608,609,610,611,612,613,614,615,1051,10

01,941, 951,901,851,852,902,942,952,1002

1052,853,903,943,853,1003,1053,

854,904,944,954,1004,1054,855,

1151,1183,1055,856,1149,1006,

1184,1056,857,907,947,1054,855,

1151,1183,1055,856,1149,1006,

1184,1056,857,907,947,957,1007,

1057,858,908,948,958,1008,1058,

859,909,949,959,1009,1059,860, 910,950,960,1010,1060

230 X 450

230 X 450

22.4

18

61

44.8

64.2

54.07

230X 450

18.9

54.5

60.62

230 X 450

21.7

63.4

65

230 X 450

9.5

32.9

32.3

B6

B7

812,832,813,833,983,814,834,826,837,818,838,

988,819,839,111,192,197,201,206,210,287,292,2

96,301,305,382,387,391,396,400,477,482,486,4

91,872,863,963,874,924,925,1152,1045,926,115

3,1046,877,927,868,968,879,1030,106,112,116,1

18,121,308,385,394,403,1155, 1160,

1165,498,575,581,582,584,586,587,591,593,825

,1162,1163,97,102,123,126,215,310,405,495,500

,572,

577,603,935,965,985,936,966,986,1157,1158,11

67,1168

822,1022,823,873,973,1023,824,

1014,1024,865,875,885,1025,866,

876,886,1026,817,827,1017,

1027

,828,878,978,1028,829,1029,99, 100,

108,109,114,117,119,213,218,290,299,316,318,4

11,413,480,483,574,576,583,585,589,592,594,5

97,1012,1032,883,1013,1033,1034,895,1015,

1035,896,1016,1036,1037,888, 1018,

1038,1019,98,103,107,207,211,216,302,306,311,

397,401,406,487,492,496,501,573,578,975,976,

193,198,202,288,293,297,383,388,392,478,483,

128,131,598,601,606,204,221,226,321,416,508,

511

230X 450

26.52

71

77.7

230 X 450

29.4

86.3

85.6

Type of

beam

Size of

the

beam

(mm)

B1

B2

B3

Reinforcement

Reinforcement

+ve BM

-ve BM

(kN-m)

(kN-m)

Starting

Curtailed

Reinforcement

shear force

811,821,831,842,843,844,984,845,846,987,

848,849,820,840,219,224,314,319,409,414, 504,509

230 X

450

4 bars of 12mm

5 bars of

12mm

3 bars of

12mm

8 mm @150c/c

841,1172,1173,850,235,425,520

230 X

450

3 bars of 12mm

4 bars of

12mm

3 bars of

12mm

8 mm @150c/c

861,911,961,981,991,921,931,881,891,862,

882,892,912,922,932,962,982,992,913,933,

864,894,914,934,964,994,905,915,945,955,

906,916,946,956,867,897,917,937,967,997,

918,938,869,889,899,919,929,939,969,125,

129,130,230,317,325,327,330,412,420,422,

1170,507,515,517599,600,602,604,605,1041,

995,996,1050,227,322,417,512

230 X

450

4 bars of 12mm

4 bars of

12mm

3 bars of

12mm

8 mm @150c/c

B4

B5

B6

1011,1021,1031,1043,887,1048,

1049,1020,1040,220,225,315,320,

410,415,505,510,971,871,972,893,

993,884,974,1044,815,835,816,836

847,977,1047,898,998,979,830,880

980,115,120,127,222,590,595,596,

132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,1148,

228,229,231,233,234,1150,323,324,326,328,

329,418,419,421,423,1182,1175,1178,513,514,

516,518,519,607,608,609,610,611,612,613,

614,615,1051,1001,941,951,901,851,852,902,942,952,100

2,1052,853,903,943,853,1003, 1053,

854,904,944,954,1004,1054,855,

1151,1183,1055,856,1149,1006,

1184,1056,857,907,947,1054,855,

1151,1183,1055,856,1149,1006,

1184,1056,857,907,947,957,1007,

1057,858,908,948,958,1008,1058,

859,909,949,959,1009,1059,860, 910,950,960,1010,1060

230 X

450

5 bars of 12mm

5 bars of

12mm

3 bars of

12mm

8 mm @150c/c

230 X

450

3 bars of 12mm

3 bars of

12mm

3 bars of

12mm

8 mm @150c/c

812,832,813,833,983,814,834,826,837,818,

838,988,819,839,111,192,197,201,206,210,

287,292,296,301,305,382,387,391,396,400,

477,482,486,491,872,863,963,874,924,925,

1152,1045,926,1153,1046,877,927,868,968,

879,1030,106,112,116,118,121,308,385,394,

403,1155,1160,1165,498,575,581,582,584,586,587,591,59

3,825,1162,1163,97,102,123,126,

215,310,404,495,500,572,577,603,935,965, 985,936,966,

986,1157,1158,1167,1168

230 X

450

5 bars of 12mm

6 bars of

12mm

4 bars of

12mm

8 mm @150c/c

BEAM 4

M20

Fe415 (Main)

Fe415 (Sec.)

LENGTH: 3645.0 mm

SIZE: 230.0 mm X 450.0 mm COVER: 25.0 mm

---------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION

0.0 mm

911.2 mm 1822.5 mm 2733.7 mm 3645.0 mm

---------------------------------------------------------------------------TOP

459.52

257.46

257.46

257.46

257.46

REINF.

(Sq. mm)

(Sq. mm)

(Sq. mm)

(Sq. mm)

(Sq. mm)

BOTTOM

257.46

257.46

257.46

257.46

462.63

REINF.

(Sq. mm)

(Sq. mm)

(Sq. mm)

(Sq. mm)

(Sq. mm)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------SUMMARY OF PROVIDED REINF. AREA

---------------------------------------------------------------------------SECTION

0.0 mm

911.2 mm 1822.5 mm 2733.7 mm 3645.0 mm

---------------------------------------------------------------------------TOP

5-12

3-12

3-12

3-12

3-12

REINF.

1 layer(s) 1 layer(s) 1 layer(s)

1 layer(s)

1 layer(s)

BOTTOM

REINF.

SHEAR

REINF.

3-12

1 layer(s)

3-12

1 layer(s)

3-12

1 layer(s)

3-12

1 layer(s)

5-12

1 layer(s)

@ 150 mm c/c @ 150 mm c/c @ 300 mm c/c @ 150 mm c/c @ 150 mm c/c

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

5#12mm

8mm

@150c/c

3#12mm

4#12mm

8mm

@150c/c

At

Support

8mm

@150c/c

At midspan

At

Support

DESIGN OF Columns

DESIGN OF COLUMN

Column subjected to combined axial load and uniaxial moment

Column subjected to combined axial load and biaxial moments

The load on the column may be cental or eccentric. check for slenderness.

Classification of columns

Ground And First Floor

Type of

column

Column number

Size of

column

Pu

(KN)

Mx

(KN-m)

Mz

(KN-m)

C1

141,151,236,246,331,341,426,436,521,531,616,

626,152,247,332,342,427,437,532,627,413,153,

238,248,333,343,428,438,523,533,618,628,154,

249,334,344,429,439,534,629,155,345,430,440,

1154,525,535,620,630,156,346,431,441,1156,526

536,621,631,157,252,337,347,432,442,537,632,

148,158,243,253,338,348,433,443,528,538,623,

633,159,254,339,349,434,444,539,634,150,160,

245,255,340,350,435,445,530,540,625,635.

300X600

1008

52.28

61.52

C2

142,617,237,522,144,239,524,619,145,240,250,

335,146,241,251,336,147,242,527,622,149,244,

529,624.

300X600

1325

56.57

10.46

C3

1159,1161

300X600

630.87

42.59

6.38

Type of

column

Column number

Size of

column

Pu

(KN)

Mx

(KN-m)

Mz

(KN-m)

C4

161,171,181,256,266,276,351,361,371,446,456,

466,541,551,561,636,646,656,172,182,267,677,

362,372,457,467,552,562,647,657,163,173,183,

258,268,278,353,363,373,448,458,468,543,553,

563,638,648,658,174,184,269,279,364,374,459,

469,554,564,649,659,175,185,1144,270,280,1146

365,375,450,460,470,1180,1164,1169,1174,1177

555,565,640,650,660,176,186,1145,271,281,1147

366,376,451,461,471,1181,1166,1171,1176,1179

556,566,641,650,660,176,186,1145,271,281,1147

366,376,451,461,471,1181,1166,1171,1176,1179

556,566,641,651,661,177,187,272,282,367,377,

462,472,557,567,652,662,168,178,188,263,273,

283,358,368,378,453,463,473,548,558,568,643,

653,663,179,189,274,284,369,379,464,474,559,

569,654,664,170,180,190,265,275,285,360,370,

380,455,465,475,550,560,570,645,655,665.

300X600

551

44.12

11.59

C5

162,257,352,447,542,637,164,259,354,449,544,

639,165,260,355,545,166,261,356,546,167,262,

357,452,547,642,169,264,359,454,549,644..

300X600

741.77

63.93

23.00

DESIGN OF COLUMN

COLUMN C2

M25

Fe500 (Main)

Fe415 (Sec.)

REQD. STEEL AREA : 3888.00 Sq.mm.

MAIN REINFORCEMENT : Provide 16 - 20 dia. (2.18%, 3926.99 Sq.mm.)

(Equally distributed)

TIE REINFORCEMENT : Provide 8 mm dia. rectangular ties @ 300 mm c/c

SECTION CAPACITY (KNS-MET)

-------------------------Puz : 3439.26 Muz1 : 155.67 Muy1 :

68.49

DESIGN OF COLUMNS

GROUND AND FIRST FLOOR

Type of

column

Column number

Size of

column

Main

Reinforcement

Transverse

reinforcement

C1

141,151,236,246,331,341,426,436,521,531,616,

626,152,247,332,342,427,437,532,627,413,153,

238,248,333,343,428,438,523,533,618,628,154,

249,334,344,429,439,534,629,155,345,430,440,

1154,525,535,620,630,156,346,431,441,1156,526

536,621,631,157,252,337,347,432,442,537,632,

148,158,243,253,338,348,433,443,528,538,623,

633,159,254,339,349,434,444,539,634,150,160,

245,255,340,350,435,445,530,540,625,635.

300X600

12#20mm

8mm

@300mmc/c

C2

142,617,237,522,144,239,524,619,145,240,250,

335,146,241,251,336,147,242,527,622,149,244,

529,624.

300X600

16#20mm

8mm

@300mmc/c

C3

1159,1161

300X600

8#20mm

8mm

@300mmc/c

Type of

column

Column number

Size of

column

Main

Reinforcement

Transverse

reinforcement

C4

161,171,181,256,266,276,351,361,371,446,456,

466,541,551,561,636,646,656,172,182,267,677,

362,372,457,467,552,562,647,657,163,173,183,

258,268,278,353,363,373,448,458,468,543,553,

563,638,648,658,174,184,269,279,364,374,459,

469,554,564,649,659,175,185,1144,270,280,1146

365,375,450,460,470,1180,1164,1169,1174,1177

555,565,640,650,660,176,186,1145,271,281,1147

366,376,451,461,471,1181,1166,1171,1176,1179

556,566,641,650,660,176,186,1145,271,281,1147

366,376,451,461,471,1181,1166,1171,1176,1179

556,566,641,651,661,177,187,272,282,367,377,

462,472,557,567,652,662,168,178,188,263,273,

283,358,368,378,453,463,473,548,558,568,643,

653,663,179,189,274,284,369,379,464,474,559,

569,654,664,170,180,190,265,275,285,360,370,

380,455,465,475,550,560,570,645,655,665.

162,257,352,447,542,637,164,259,354,449,544,

639,165,260,355,545,166,261,356,546,167,262,

357,452,547,642,169,264,359,454,549,644..

300X600

8#20mm

8mm

@300mmc/c

300X600

12#20mm

8mm

@300mmc/c

C5

DESIGN OF FOOTING

DESIGN OF FOOTING

Define Parameters

Footing dimension

Factor of safety-overturning

Factor of safety-sliding

Vertical load

Lateral load

Material data

Reinforcement details

Depth of footing

h=p/w((1-sin)/(1+sin))2

where angle of friction of soil

p safe bearing capacity

w unit weight of soil

Load on soil = P+10%P

where P axial load

Determine the minimum depth required from the consideration of

BM, Single shear, Double shear.

Reinforcement in footing-in longer direction and shorter direction.

Check for shear stresses.

Reinforcement details.

Classification of footing

Type of footing

Footing number

Pu(KN)

Mx(KN-m) Mz(KN-m)

Fx(KN)

Fz(KN)

F1

A6,C6,H6,J6,A5,J5,A4,C4,H4,J4,A3,C3,H3

,J3,A2,J2,A1,C1,H1,J1

980

61.47

50.956

31.82

27.581

1180

60.85

55.314

36.48

58.59

1350

67.5

56.6

37.05

33.53

810

670

72

71

53.75

45

34

26.5

38

37.7

Isolated footing

F2

B6,D6,E6,F6,G6,I6,B5,C5,D5,G5,H5,I5,B4,

D4,E4,F4,G4,I4,B3,D3,G3,I3,B2,C2,D2,E2,

F2,G2,H2,I2,B1,D1,E1,F1,G1,I1..

Isolated footing

F3

E5,F5

Isolated footing

F4

E3-E2

F3-F2

Combined footing

Details of footing

Type of

footing

Dimensions of

footing

(m)

Depth of

foundation

(m)

F-1

2.3X2.3

F-2

F-3

Thickness of footing

(m)

Reinforcement along

shorter span

span

At edge

At face

of

column

1.5

0.5

0.75

12mm @135mmc/c

12mm @140mmc/c

2.5X2.5

1.5

0.5

0.75

12mm @135mmc/c

12mm @140mmc/c

2.6X2.6

1.5

0.5

0.75

12mm @135mmc/c

12mm @140mmc/c

Combined footing

Type of

footing

Dimensions

of footing

(m)

Depth of

foundation

(m)

Slab

thickness

(m)

Beam

dimensions

(m)

F-4

2.85 X 4

1.5

0.675

0.3X0.8

Reinforcement in slab

Main bars

Distribution

bars

12mm

@155mmc/c

10mm

@75mmc/c

Reinforcement in beam

Main bars

Shear

reinforceme

nt

5#25mm at 4leg vertical

bottom

stirrups of

8mm at

170mm c/c

DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

DESIGN OF STAIRCASE

Define Parameters

Floor height

Height of riser

Beam location

Width of support

Load data

Material data

Reinforcement data

PLAN OF STAIRCASE

SUMMARY

building is in the shape of a rectangle which consists of all the amenities required for a

residential building. One staircase and one lifts are provided for vertical movement

between various floors. The analysis is carried out by using a package called STAAD Pro,

and

seismic load is also considered.M20 grade concrete and Fe415 (HYSD) steel bars are used

as construction materials for structural elements. Design of structural elements is

carried out by limit state approach using IS456-2000 and SP-16.

Conclusion

method, ultimate method, and limit state method) out of which the limit

hence we have adopted the limit state method of design.

In this project earthquake force is taken along with dead load and live

load. For all the combinations of loads the classical method such as Kanis

method, moment distribution method etc are not suitable hence the STAAD

program was used for the analysis of the structure for all the loading

combinations.

which provides ductility to the structure and hence better performance.

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