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Alam semesta: zat cair gas plasma zat padat

Zat padat bagian terkecil penyusun alam semesta tetapi banyak teknologi modern yang didasarkan atas karakteristik khusus zat padat.

What is a Solid ?

A material that keeps in shape. - can be deformed by stress - return to origin shape - If it is not strained too much The mechanical properties of solid especially strength against large strains have been part of human advances for thousands of years

Gas

Liquid

Crystalline Solid

Sifat bahan (kekuatan,kekerasan,kelistrikan, sifat termal) ditentukan oleh struktur internal (susunan geometrik atom) bahan pengetahuan ttg susunan geometrik penting untuk mempelajari sifat bahan.

Amorf : bahan yang atom-atom penyusunnya tidak memiliki pola keteraturan ttt. Contoh: a-Si

Kristal: bahan yang atom-atom penyusunnya memiliki pola keteraturan dalam 3 dimensi dan periodik dengan jangkauan yang panjang. Contoh: kristal Si

What is the lattice? What is the basis? What choice of a1,a2,a3 (lattice translation vector) do we wish to make?

LATTICE/KISI

A lattice is a mathematical abstraction; the crystal structure is formed when a basis of atoms is attached identically to every lattice point.

Crystals

A crystal is a repeated array of atoms

Crystal

Lattice

Basis

Basic of Atoms

Lattice Translation Vector Lattice is defined by three fundamental translation vectors a1,a2,a3 such that the atomic arrangement looks the same in every respect when viewed from the point r as when viewed from the point: r = r + u1a1 + u2a2 + u3a3 (1)

..........................

Lattice translation operation is defined as the displacement of a crystal by a crystal translation vector: T = u1a1 + u2a2 + u3a3

Fig. 2 The atomic arrangement in the crystal looks exactly the same to an observer at r as to an observer at r

The lattice and the translation vectors a1,a2,a3 are said to be primitive if any two points r, r from wich the atomic arrangement looks the same always satisfy (1) with suitable choice of integers u1,u2,u3 .

Jelaskan mengapa a1 , b1 vektor translasi Primitif sedangkan a2 , b2 bukan vektor translasi primitif !

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