IST4060 Telecommunications and Networks

(a). Introductory Concepts; (b). Physical Layer Issues – Transmission Media

Lesson 1: Introduction to Telecommunications
Tele-communications means: communicating information at a distance By what means? (i). electrical signal [copper wire]; (ii). radio signal [wireless]; (iii). optical signal [optical fiber cable] Question: (i). Do we need the communication? (ii). Which means is the best?

“Information” might be:
a page of written text (data communication); a conversation (voice communication); a TV picture..
Question: Different types of information place different demands on the telecommunication system. Explain how a page of written text and a voice conversation differ in their demands?

Information (Cont’d)
Information usually requires conversion into an electrical signal in order to be conveyed by telecommunication means:

Convert at source;
Re-convert at destination Question: What information does your mobile phone convert?

must we have full duplex operation? . Basic physical elements of a telecommunication system – Duplex Operation Question: In human conversation.Duplex Communication Information flow Transmitter Receiver Transport mechanism Receiver Transmitter Fig. 1.

2.Simplex Operation Information flow Transmitter Transport mechanism Receiver Fig. Basic physical elements of a telecommunication system – Simplex Operation Question: Give examples of simplex systems .

it is a complex switch and line arrangement. rather.Transport Mechanism The transport mechanism is not just a single line. Question: Why the switch? Why the line? .

The Switching Network C B 1 3 5 D 2 E 4 7 A = communication network node 6 F = End station Question: Analyze the switching fabric critically .

.Full-Mesh Switching Network Question: If a switching network has N communication nodes (switches) and is full-mesh connected. determine the total number of cables required.

The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) P: S: T: N: Public Switched Telephone Network Question: What are the key features of this network? .

The PSTN Local loop Exchange(s) PC & Modem PC & Modem PSTN The Public Switched Telephone Network .

The PSTN Structure The PSTN Very high Bandwidth Inter-toll trunks Toll office Telephone set Local loop End office Intermediate switching office Toll office Toll Connecting trunk Telephone set End office Question: How is it different from cellular network? .

What is the NSN size in Kenya? . How do now dial an international call? (iii). How do you do a local call? (v). How do you do an trunk call? (iv). How is it different for cellular network? (ii).International Telephone Numbering Scheme international prefix (00) country code (CC) national significant number NSN trunk area code + subscriber number maximum 15 digits Recommended Format of international telephone numbers Questions: (i).

Digits dialled. in sequence 00 CC Area Code Customer local number International prefix Country code National number Example 00 44 71 234 5678 UK London Exchange Customer General structure of an international number call and example .

What determines the length of the customer number? Give local examples (ii). What determines the length of the area code? Give local examples (iii). Explain the need for hierarchy. .Trunk prefix Trunk dialed number Area code Customer number 0 71 234 5678 local dialed number 234 5678 General structure of trunk and local calls Questions: (i).

Summary Telecommunications is Life Itself! .

. • Multiplexing Techniques.Physical Layer Issues (Transmission Media) • Concept of Bandwidth • Transmission Media Types (Wired/Wireless).

Concept of Bandwidth F(t) Signal strength (V) time Information Signal .

.Bandwidth (Cont’d) Consider an information signal F(t). given by: F(t) = F0(t) + F1(t) + ……. + Fn(t) Fourier series Transmission media transmits signals No transmission facility can transmit signals without power loss [attenuation] Different signal components diminished by different amounts [distortion] .

Bandwidth (Cont’d) Bandwidth = Width of a frequency band The range of frequencies transmitted without being strongly attenuated Higher Bandwidth More information transmitted .

Analog Signal to Digital Signal Signal frequency = signal repetitions per second Analog signal Signal strength (V) Sample time Sampling an analog signal .

Key Question 1 How many samples per second? Sampling rate Nyquist Sampling Theorem Sample at the rate of twice the highest frequency .

Example: Human Voice 4000 cycles / second Maximum frequency (voice) Nyquist multiplier x2 8000 samples/ cycles samples / second Nyquist sampling theorem calculations .

convert each sample magnitudes to bits How many bits per sample? 8 bits per sample .Key Question 2 Each sample has a magnitude.

000 bits per second = 64000 bps = 64 kbps Data required needed to transport voice signal = 64 kbps .Example: Human Voice 4000 x2 cycles / second samples/ cycles Maximum frequency (voice) Nyquist multiplier 8000 samples / second 8000 samples / second X 8 bits per sample 64.

Review Question Determine the data rate needed to transport 10 voice calls simultaneously What happens if 10 voice calls are required at the same time yet the available data rate can only support 8 calls simultaneously .

• Unguided Transmission Media.Transmission Media Types • Guided Transmission Media. .

Transmission Media . Cost. fiber optics.Introduction Transport a raw bit stream from one machine to another Various media available. Ease of installation & Maintenance Guided Media – Magnetic tape. Unguided Media – radio waves . Delay. different in the following ways: Bandwidth.1. copper wire.

400 secs) = 19 Gbps Backup Tapes Delay .(i). Magnetic Media Removable Media – recordable DVDs Physically transport the data from one machine to another Very Cost-effective Example Industry standard tape – 200 gigabytes Box full of 1000 tapes – 200 x 103 gigabytes Courier company can deliver in 24 hours Effective data rate = (200 x 103 x 1012 x 8 bits)/(86.

CAT 5 – 100 Mbps. Low cost Twisting helps minimize interference UTP {Unshielded Twisted Pair} CAT 3 – 10 Mbps. we need an on-line connection Very widely used: Adequate performance.(ii). CAT 6 – 1000 Mbps Increasing twists per cm of cable length . Twisted Pair Copper For many applications.

(iii). Coaxial Cable Has better shielding than twisted pair cable: Higher bandwidth. Can span long distances Consists of stiff copper surrounded by insulating material Higher bandwidth. Good noise immunity Uses 800 Mbps Cable TV & Metropolitan networks .

to transmit information. Fiber Optics Uses light. Absence of light: 0 bit. Transmission Medium – thin glass of fiber. Pulse of light: 1 bit. Components of the cable: Light source – such as a light emitting diode (LED). not electricity. Detector – generates an electrical pulse when light falls on it .(iii).

Computer Networks .Fiber Optics (Cont’d) Immune to electrical interference High data rates – 2 Gbps to 28 Gbps Applications: Long distance phone lines.

Not affected by corrosive chemicals. No electromagnetic interference. Fiber Fiber has the following advantages: Much higher bandwidths. Low attenuation. Thin and lightweight – lower installation cost. Difficult to tap – good security .Copper vs.

Copper is to the desktop . Fiber (Cont’d) Copper has the following advantages: Excellent resale value – to copper refiners.Copper vs. More familiar technology. The Future is Fiber – especially long distances. Cheaper interfaces – network interface cards.

Palmtop. Notebook.Wireless (Unguided) Transmission Laptop. etc Fixed (non-mobile) devices . Telephones. Wristwatch Wireless Transmission Media Mobile devices Wired Transmission Desktops. Faxes.

Costly right of way. Mobility requirements .Wireless Transmission Wireless transmission suits: Mountaineous areas.

Electromagnetic Spectrum Frequency in HZ 100 102 104 106 108 1010 1012 1014 1016 UV 1018 1020 1022 X-ray 1024 Radio Microwave Infrared Visible light Gamma ray Signal strength (V) λ time λ λ = wavelength f = frequency .

Wavelength All the waves travel at the speed of light (approximately) Wavelength = Speed of light Frequency Speed of light 3 x 108 meters/sec .

Wavelength (Cont’d) Frequency (Hz) 102 Low frequency 104 106 108 Wavelength (meters) 3 x 106 3 x 104 3 x 102 3 0.0003 High frequency 1010 1012 .03 0.

UHF broadcasts .Radio Waves Radio transmissions (88 MHz to 110 MHz). TV Transmissions (300 MHz to 3 GHZ).

Microwaves Features Transmissions occur between two ground stations. Microwaves travel in straight lines. Atmospheric conditions and solid objects interfere with them Applications: Mobile phones. Long distance telephone communications . Television distribution.

This is microwave transmission where one of the stations is a satellite orbiting the earth. Applications: Telephone.Satellite Basically. Television. Weather reporting Military Use . News Services.

MW. SW Radio WLL. Cellular WLANs Bluetooth Infrared 1m 10m 100m 1km 10km 100km 1000km Range of Wireless Systems .Satellite FM.

4. Satellite good where the terrain is hostile. Satellite good where rapid deployment is key – military. .Satellite vs. not fiber. Satellite good where right-of-way is expensive 6. 5. Satellite provides potential for broadcast. Fiber 2. Fiber is a fixed line technology – no use for mobility 3.

Satellite vs. Fiber But: Fiber offers more bandwidth than satellite. Satellites cost more than fiber Fiber and satellite will coexist for years to come .

10 10 .274 Transmission band dependent Why is Bandwidth so Crucial? .Media: Summary Media Copper Fiber Wireless Data Rate (Mbps) 10 .100 2000 Repeater Spacing (km) 1 .100 12 .

•Reliability – high loss rates. the following are the key limitations associated with wireless systems: •Scarce spectrum – low data rates. •Security – medium is broadcast.Broad Issues With Wireless Despite the great promise. •Power – mobility brings about battery operation. .

Media types will coexist for years to come.Summary Media transports data (in analog or digital form). .

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.