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Ele ctronic Structure of

Atoms

&
The Per iod ic
Tab le Chapter 4

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Quantum Numbers

Principal quantum number – ( n )

Angular momentum quantum number – ( l )

Magnetic quantum number – ( ml )

Spin quantum number – ( ms )

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Quantum Numbers (n, l, ml, ms)
principal quantum number n
n = 1, 2, 3, 4, ….

distance of e- from the nucleus

n=3
n=2
n=1

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Quantum Numbers(n, l, ml, ms)
angular momentum quantum number l

for a given value of n, l = 0, 1, 2, 3, … n-1

n = 1, l=0 l=0 s orbital


n = 2, l = 0 or 1 l=1 p orbital
n = 3, l = 0, 1, or 2 l=2 d orbital
l=3 f orbital

Shape of the “volume” of space that the e- occupies

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l = 0 (s orbitals)

l = 1 (p orbitals)

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l = 2 (d orbitals)

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Quantum Numbers (n, l, ml, ms)

magnetic quantum number ml


for a given value of l ml = -l, …., 0, …. +l

for l = 0 (s orbital) ml = 0
if l = 1 (p orbital), ml = -1, 0, or +1
if l = 2 (d orbital), ml = -2, -1, 0, +1, or +2

orientation of the orbital in space

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ml = -1 ml = 0 ml = 1

ml = -2 ml = -1 ml = 0 ml = 1 ml = 2
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Quantum Numbers (n, l, ml, ms)

spin quantum number ms

ms = +½ or -½

ms = +½ ms = -½

Experimental
arrangement for demo
the spinning motion of
electrons
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Quantum Numbers (n, l, ml, ms)

Existence (and energy) of electron in atom is described


by its unique Quantum Numbers

Pauli exclusion principle


No two electrons in an atom
can have the same four quantum
numbers.

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Quantum Numbers (n, l, ml, ms)

Shell – electrons with the same value of n


Subshell – electrons with the same values of n and l
Orbital – electrons with the same values of n, l, and ml

How many electrons can an orbital hold?

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How many 2p orbitals are there in an atom?

How many electrons can be placed in the 3d


subshell?

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Electron configuration is how the electrons are
distributed among the various atomic orbitals in an
atom.

number of electrons
in the orbital or subshell
1s 1
principal quantum angular momentum
number n quantum number l

Orbital diagram

H
1s1

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Order of orbitals (filling) in multi-electron atom

“Fill up” electrons in


lowest energy orbitals
(Aufbau principle)

1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s

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C 6 electrons C 1s22s22p2
B 5 electrons B 1s22s22p1

Li 3 electrons Li 1s22s1

H 1 electron H 1s1

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The most stable arrangement of electrons
in subshells is the one with the greatest
number of parallel spins (Hund’s rule).

Ne 10 electrons Ne 1s22s22p6
F 9 electrons F 1s22s22p5
O 8 electrons O 1s22s22p4
N 7 electrons N 1s22s22p3

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What is the electron configuration of Mg?

What are the possible quantum numbers for the


last (outermost) electron in Cl?

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Outermost subshell being filled with electrons

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Paramagnetic Diamagnetic
unpaired electrons all electrons paired

2p 2p
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When the Elements Were Discovered

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Ground State Electron Configurations of the Elements

ns2np6
ns1

ns2np1

ns2np2

ns2np3
ns2np4
ns2np5
ns2

d10
d1

d5

4f
5f
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Classification of the Elements

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Electron Configurations of Cations and Anions
Of Representative Elements

Na [Ne]3s1 Na+ [Ne] Atoms lose electrons so that


Ca [Ar]4s2 Ca2+ [Ar] cation has a noble-gas outer
electron configuration.
Al [Ne]3s23p1 Al3+ [Ne]

H 1s1 H- 1s2 or [He]


Atoms gain electrons
F 1s22s22p5 F- 1s22s22p6 or [Ne]
so that anion has a
noble-gas outer O 1s22s22p4 O2- 1s22s22p6 or [Ne]
electron configuration.
N 1s22s22p3 N3- 1s22s22p6 or [Ne]

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Cations and Anions Of Representative Elements
+1
+2

+3

-1
-3
-2
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Ion charges

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Na+: [Ne] Al3+: [Ne] F-: 1s22s22p6 or [Ne]

O2-: 1s22s22p6 or [Ne] N3-: 1s22s22p6 or [Ne]

Na+, Al3+, F-, O2-, and N3- are all isoelectronic with Ne

What neutral atom is isoelectronic with H- ?

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Electron Configurations of Cations of Transition Metals

When a cation is formed from an atom of a transition metal,


electrons are always removed first from the ns orbital and
then from the (n – 1)d orbitals.

Fe: [Ar]4s23d6 Mn: [Ar]4s23d5


Fe2+: [Ar]4s03d6 or [Ar]3d6 Mn2+: [Ar]4s03d5 or [Ar]3d5
Fe3+: [Ar]4s03d5 or [Ar]3d5

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Q & A session
Name the orbital described by the following
quantum numbers :

• n = 3, l = 0
• n = 3, l = 1
• n = 3, l = 2
• n = 5, l = 0

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Q & A session

Give the n and l values for the following


orbital
    a. 1s
    b. 3s
    c. 2p
    d. 4d
    e. 5f

What and the possible ml values for the


following types of orbital?
    a. s
    b. p
    c. d
    d. f

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Q & A session

How many possible orbital are there for n =


    a. 4
    b. 10

How many electrons can inhabit all of the


n = 4 orbital?

Place the following orbital in order of


increasing energy:
    1s, 3s, 4s, 6s, 3d, 4f, 3p, 7s, 5d, 5p

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Q & A session
Write electron configurations for the
following atoms:
    a. H

    b. Li+

    c. N

    d. F-

    e. Ca

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Q & A session

Draw an orbital diagrams for atoms with


the following electron configurations:

1s22s22p63s23p3

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