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Properties Of Matter

Chapter 6

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Three States of Matter

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Phase Changes
Phase changes, trans-formations from one phase to
another, occur when energy (usually in the form of
heat) is added or removed.

3 Phases
H2O (l) H2O (g)
Gas phase - steam
Liquid phase - water H2O (s) H2O (l)
Solid phase - ice H2O (s) H2O (g)

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Phase Changes

Condensation
Evaporation
Melting solid  liquid

Freezing liquid  solid

Sublimation

Deposition
Vaporization liquid  gas

Condensation gas  liquid

Freezing
Melting
Sublimation solid  gas
Deposition gas  solid

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Phase Diagram of Water

A phase diagram
summarizes the
conditions at
which a substance
exists as a solid,
liquid, or gas.

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Gases
Physical Characteristics of Gases

• Gases assume the volume and


shape of their containers.
• Gases are the most compressible
state of matter.
• Gases will mix evenly and
completely when confined to the
same container.
• Gases have much lower densities
than liquids and solids.

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Elements that exist as gases at 25 0C and 1 atmosphere

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Force
Pressure =
Area

Units of Pressure

1 pascal (Pa) = 1 N/m2


1 atm = 760 mmHg = 760
torr
Barometer
1 atm = 101,325 Pa
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10 mi les 0. 2 atm

4 mil es 0. 5 atm

Sea l evel 1 atm

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As P (h) increases V decreases
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Boyle’s Law

P α 1/V
P x V = constant Constant temperature
Constant amount of gas
P1 x V1 = P2 x V2
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A sample of chlorine gas occupies a volume of 946 mL at
a pressure of 726 mmHg. What is the pressure of the gas
(in mmHg) if the volume is reduced at constant
temperature to 154 mL?

P1 x V1 = P2 x V2
P1 = 726 mmHg P2 = ?
V1 = 946 mL V2 = 154 mL

P1 x V1 726 mmHg x 946 mL


P2 = = = 4460 mmHg
V2 154 mL

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Chemistry in Action:

Scuba Diving and the Gas Laws Depth Pressure


(ft) (atm)
0 1

33 2

66 3

P V

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Charles’ & Gay-Lussac’s Law

As T increases V increases
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Variation of gas volume with temperature at constant pressure.

VαT Temperature must be


V = constant x T in Kelvin
V1/T1 = V2/T2 T (K) = t (0C) + 273.15
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A sample of carbon monoxide gas occupies 3.20
L at 125 0C. At what temperature will the gas
occupy a volume of 1.54 L if the pressure
remains constant?
V1/T1 = V2/T2

V1 = 3.20 L V2 = 1.54 L
T1 = 398.15 K T2 = ?

V2 x T1 1.54 L x 398.15 K
T2 = = = 192 K
V1 3.20 L

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Avogadro’s Law

V α number of moles (n) Constant temperature


V = constant x n Constant pressure

V1/n1 = V2/n2

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Ammonia burns in oxygen to form nitric oxide (NO)
and water vapor. How many volumes of NO are
obtained from one volume of ammonia at the same
temperature and pressure?

4NH3 + 5O2 4NO + 6H2O

1 mole NH3 1 mole NO

At constant T and P

1 volume NH3 1 volume NO

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Ideal Gas Equation

Boyle’s law: V α 1 (at constant n and T)


P
Charles’ law: V α T (at constant n and P)
Avogadro’s law: V α n (at constant P and T)

nT nT nT
Vα V = constant x =R
P P P
R is the gas constant

PV = nRT
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The conditions 0 0C and 1 atm are called standard
temperature and pressure (STP).

Experiments show that at STP, 1 mole of an ideal


gas occupies 22.4 L.

PV = nRT
PV
R=
nT
(1 atm)(22.4L)
=
(1 mol)(273.15 K)

R = 0.082057 L • atm / (mol • K)


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What is the volume (in liters) occupied by 49.8 g
of HCl at STP?

T = 0 0C = 273.15 K

P = 1 atm
PV = nRT 1 mol HCl
nRT n = 49.8 g x = 1.37 mol
V= 36.45 g HCl
P
L•atm
1.37 mol x 0.0821 mol•K
x 273.15 K
V=
1 atm

V = 30.6 L
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d= m
Density (d) V
Calculations
PV = nRT = m RT
M
m is the mass of the gas in g
PM = m RT = dRT
V
PM
d= M is the molar mass of the
RT gas

Molar Mass (M ) of a Gaseous Substance

dRT
M= P d is the density of the gas in g/L

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Gas Stoichiometry

What is the volume of CO2 produced at 370 C and


1.00 atm when 5.60 g of glucose are used up in the
reaction:
C6H12O6 (s) + 6O2 (g) 6CO2 (g) + 6H2O (l)

g C6H12O6 mol C6H12O6 mol CO2 V CO2

1 mol C6H12O6 6 mol CO2


5.60 g C6H12O6 x x = 0.187 mol CO2
180 g C6H12O6 1 mol C6H12O6

L•atm
0.187 mol x 0.0821 x 310.15 K
nRT mol•K
V= = = 4.76 L
P 1.00 atm

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Liquids
Properties of Liquids
Surface tension is the amount of energy required to
stretch or increase the surface of a liquid by a unit area.

Strong intermolecular
forces

High surface
tension

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Cohesion is the intermolecular attraction between like
molecules
Adhesion is an attraction between unlike molecules

Adhesion

When When
adhesion is cohesion is
greater than greater than
cohesion, the Cohesion adhesion, a
liquid rises depression of
in the the liquid in
capillary the capillary
tube. tube.
water mercury
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Viscosity is a measure of a fluid’s resistance to
flow.

Strong
intermolecular
forces

High
viscosity

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Solids
• A crystalline solid possesses rigid and long-range order. In a
crystalline solid, atoms, molecules or ions occupy specific
(predictable) positions.
• An amorphous solid does not possess a well-defined arrangement
and long-range molecular order.
A unit cell is the basic repeating structural unit of a crystalline
solid.
lattice
point

Unit Cell Unit cells in 3 dimensions


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Shared by 8 Shared by 2
unit cells unit cells
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1 atom/unit cell 2 atoms/unit cell 4 atoms/unit cell
(8 x 1/8 = 1) (8 x 1/8 + 1 = 2) (8 x 1/8 + 6 x 1/2 = 4)
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When silver crystallizes, it forms face-centered cubic
cells. The unit cell edge length is 409 pm. Calculate
the density of silver.

m
d= V = a3 = (409 pm)3 = 6.83 x 10-23 cm3
V
4 atoms/unit cell in a face-centered cubic cell

107.9 g 1 mole Ag
m = 4 Ag atoms x x = 7.17 x 10-22
g
mole Ag 6.022 x 10 atoms
23

m 7.17 x 10-22 g
d= = = 10.5 g/cm 3
V 6.83 x 10-23 cm3

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Extra distance = BC + CD = 2d sinθ = nλ (Bragg Equation)
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X rays of wavelength 0.154 nm are diffracted from
a crystal at an angle of 14.170. Assuming that n = 1,
what is the distance (in pm) between layers in the
crystal?
nλ = 2d sin θ

n=1 θ = 14.170 λ = 0.154 nm = 154 pm


1 x 154 pm
d= =
2sinθ 2 x sin14.17

= 314.5 pm

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Types of Crystals
Ionic Crystals
• Lattice points occupied by cations and anions
• Held together by electrostatic attraction
• Hard, brittle, high melting point
• Poor conductor of heat and electricity

CsCl ZnS CaF2


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Types of Crystals
Covalent Crystals
• Lattice points occupied by atoms
• Held together by covalent bonds
• Hard, high melting point
• Poor conductor of heat and electricity
carbon
atoms

diamond graphite
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Types of Crystals
Molecular Crystals
• Lattice points occupied by molecules
• Held together by intermolecular forces
• Soft, low melting point
• Poor conductor of heat and electricity

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Types of Crystals
Metallic Crystals
• Lattice points occupied by metal atoms
• Held together by metallic bonds
• Soft to hard, low to high melting point
• Good conductors of heat and electricity
Cross Section of a Metallic Crystal
nucleus &
inner shell e-

mobile “sea”
of e-

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Types of Crystals

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