222 views

Uploaded by fit3akmal

- Unit 8 Review Answers
- chemistry - gas laws presentation 1
- Scientific Instruments and Law
- m-2 guía gases
- Propierties of Petroleum Fluid
- 2.3
- Velocity
- fluids unit plan
- MEC1205 - Thermodynamics I 2008
- pdfa4_7
- IEEE_06058224
- Unit 5 Worksheet 1
- CHAPTER 1-Basic Concept of Fluid Mechanics
- State of Matter
- Exercise Salts
- Combustion and Flame Volume 123 Issue 1-2 2000 [Doi 10.1016_s0010-2180(00)00144-9] J.J Saastamoinen; R Taipale; M Horttanainen; P Sarkomaa -- Propagation of the Ignition Front in Beds of Wood Particles
- AE 221Tutorial 1
- Hany et al
- ACD-G1.6-EN-V3-0-2012-01
- Seminar_4

You are on page 1of 24

determining the height of a mercury column supported in a sealed glass tube.

by the outside atmospheric pressure that presses down on the mercury in the

dish and pushes it up the column. 1

Open-end manometer

bulb is higher than

atmospheric, so the

The pressure in the mercury level is

bulb is lower than higher in the arm

atmospheric, so the open to the

mercury level is atmosphere.

higher in the arm

open to the bulb.

pressure in a gas-filled bulb

2

Gas Pressure Units

Gas pressure is the collisions of randomly moving particles

with the walls of the container exert a force per unit area.

Other units:

1 atm = 760 mm Hg = 760 torr (1 mm Hg = 1 torr)

1 atm = 101325 Pa = 101.3 kPa (1 Pa = 1 N/m2) 1 atm

= 1.01325 bar

1 atm = 29.921 in Hg

1 atm = 14.7 lb/in2

1 atm = psi

3

The Gas Laws

The physical properties of any gas can be described

completely (more or less) by four variables:

are the gas laws, and a gas whose behavior follows

these laws exactly is called an ideal gas.

There are four key gas law equations that have been

empirically determined, which are combined into the

combined gas law and the ideal gas law.

4

Boyle’s Law: Pressure and

Volume

Pressure–Volume Law:

• The volume of a fixed

amount of gas maintained

at constant temperature

is inversely proportional

to the gas pressure.

decreases, the gas

particles have less room

to move around in, and

they collide more often (n, T constant)

with the walls of the

container, thus increasing

the pressure.

5

Charles’ Law: Temperature

and

Temperature–Volume

Volume

Law:

• The volume of a fixed

amount of gas at constant

pressure is directly

proportional to the Kelvin

temperature of the gas

(not the Celsius temp!)

• If the absolute

temperature is doubled,

the volume is doubled.

V T (n,P constant)

6

Avogadro’s Law: Volume and

Amount

The Volume–Amount

Law:

• At constant pressure and

temperature, the

volume of a gas is directly

proportional to the

number of moles of the

gas present.

(P,T constant)

7

Gay-Lussac’s Law: Pressure and

Temperature

For a fixed amount of gas at a constant

volume, the pressure of a gas is directly

proportional to its Kelvin temperature.

P T

8

Combined Gas Law

Since PV, V/T and P/T all have constant values for fixed

amount of gas, these relationships can be merged into

a combined gas law, which holds true whenever the

amount of gas is fixed.

9

The Ideal Gas Law

Ideal gases obey an equation incorporating the laws of

Charles, Boyle, and Avogadro.

STP conditions are 273.15 K and 1 atm pressure

R is a proportionality constant called the ideal gas

constant, which has the same value for all gases:

R = 8.314 JK-1mol-1 (if P = Pa, V = m3)

R = 62.36 L torr K-1 mol-1 (if P = torr, V = L)

10

The Ideal Gas Law

• Density and Molar Mass Calculations:

a gas. The density of a gas is usually very low

under atmospheric conditions.

11

Stoichiometric Relationships

with Gases

• We can now combine gas law problems with

stoichiometry problems.

pressure of a gas reactant or product, we can

calculate

the amount (mol) from the ideal gas law, and use the

coefficients of the balanced equation to convert that

into

moles of another reactant or product

amount A amount B

P,V,T of gas A P,V,T of gas B

(in moles) (in moles)

12

Dalton’s Law of Partial

• The total pressurePressures

exerted by a mixture of gases in a

container at constant V and T is equal to the sum of the

partial pressures exerted by each individual gas in the

container

Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + …..

13

Dalton’s Law of Partial

Pressures

• For a two-component system, the moles of

components A and B can be represented by the

mole fractions (XA and XB).

14

Dalton’s Law of Partial

Pressures

• Mole fraction is related to the total pressure by:

15

Kinetic Molecular Theory of

Gases

• This theory presents physical properties of gases in terms

of the motion of individual molecules.

• The kinetic-molecular theory is based on the following

assumptions:

1. A gas consists of tiny particles, either atoms or

molecules, constantly moving about in straight lines until

they collide with another particle or the wall of the

container.

compared to the total volume of the gas. Most of the

volume of a gas is empty space.

16

Kinetic Molecular Theory of

Gases

3.The average kinetic energy of the gas particles is

directly

proportional to the temperature of the gas in Kelvin.

There is a distribution of velocities in a sample of

gas — some particles are moving faster and some

are moving slower — but the higher the temperature, the

greater the average kinetic energy is. (EK = ½mv2)

17

Kinetic Molecular Theory of

Gases

4.The collisions of particles with each other or with the

walls of the container are completely elastic.

When the particles collide, they may exchange energy,

but there is no overall loss of energy: the total kinetic

energy of the gas particles is constant at constant T.

The gas particles do not attract each other, so there is

no “stickiness” to the particles.

18

Gas law summary

(a) Decreasing the volume of the gas at constant n and T increases the frequency of

collisions with the container walls and therefore increases the pressure (Boyle’s law).

(b) Increasing the temperature (kinetic energy) at constant n and P increases the volume

of the gas (Charles’ law).

(c) Increasing the amount of gas at constant T and P increases the volume (Avogadro’s

law).

(d) Changing the identity of some gas molecules at constant T and V has no effect on

the pressure (Dalton’s law). 19

Behavior of Real Gases

• Real gases are gases that deviate from “ideal gas law”

but under most conditions, these deviations are slight.

• The actual molar volumes of real gases are not exactly

22.4 L, but they are fairly close (more later).

20

Behavior of Real Gases

The behavior of real gases is often quite a bit different

from that of ideal gases, especially at very low

temperatures or very high pressures.

either attractive or repulsive, on one another.

compared with that of the container.

21

Behavior of Real Gases

• However, at higher pressures, particles are much

closer together and attractive forces become more

important.

molecular diameters. The result of the attraction is a decrease

in the actual volume of most real gases when compared with ideal

gases at pressures up to 300 atm.

22

Behavior of Real Gases

• The volume taken up by gas particles is actually less

important at lower pressures than at higher pressure.

As a result, the volume at high pressure will be greater

than the ideal value.

at lower pressure (a) than at higher pressure (b).

As a result, the volume of a real gas at high pressure is somewhat larger

than the ideal value

23

Behavior of Real Gases

Corrections for non-ideality require van der

Waals equation.

intermolecular gas particle

attractions volume

24

- Unit 8 Review AnswersUploaded bymamazookeepr
- chemistry - gas laws presentation 1Uploaded byapi-307032467
- Scientific Instruments and LawUploaded byAbhijit Jadhav
- m-2 guía gasesUploaded byapi-27085921
- Propierties of Petroleum FluidUploaded byRigoberto Chandomi Loly
- 2.3Uploaded bymahesh
- VelocityUploaded byMash_mariale
- fluids unit planUploaded byapi-281248740
- MEC1205 - Thermodynamics I 2008Uploaded byMaria Cutajar
- pdfa4_7Uploaded byaizat
- IEEE_06058224Uploaded bycfdcfd12
- Unit 5 Worksheet 1Uploaded byranbus
- CHAPTER 1-Basic Concept of Fluid MechanicsUploaded byKogulan Subramaniam
- State of MatterUploaded byMohit Tumane
- Exercise SaltsUploaded byIda Yuni Sukadi
- Combustion and Flame Volume 123 Issue 1-2 2000 [Doi 10.1016_s0010-2180(00)00144-9] J.J Saastamoinen; R Taipale; M Horttanainen; P Sarkomaa -- Propagation of the Ignition Front in Beds of Wood ParticlesUploaded byhamed12077
- AE 221Tutorial 1Uploaded byanimeshkumarverma
- Hany et alUploaded byprevrtljivac
- ACD-G1.6-EN-V3-0-2012-01Uploaded byarya231092
- Seminar_4Uploaded bypoeta_oscuro
- 2_006 CoursenotesUploaded byM UmAr ArshAd
- spe-184458-Uploaded byapi-290198265
- jean_perrrin_atomsUploaded byDaniel Casimir
- Chap9 Thermodynamics of Ideal GasesUploaded byBanwari Lal Prajapat
- 11. Calibration and Use of Pressure and Temperature Measuring InstrumentsUploaded byOcireg Ocireg
- Final 99Uploaded bySadeep Madhushan
- ChemistryUploaded byমহঃনূরমাওলা
- cachemistrystandardsUploaded byapi-237073553
- AI PPTUploaded bysagarkapoor
- 1-s2.0-S0009250904004403-main (3).pdfUploaded byMuhammad Adnan Laghari

- The Circulatory SystemUploaded byfit3akmal
- Chapter 5 Chemical EquilibriumUploaded byfit3akmal
- hormonUploaded byfit3akmal
- Chapter 03_liquid,Solid n Phase ChangesUploaded byfit3akmal
- Chapter 4 Solutions _ Their PropertiesUploaded byfit3akmal
- Animal TissuesUploaded byfit3akmal
- Chapter 8 - Digestive SystemUploaded byfit3akmal
- HomeostasisUploaded byfit3akmal
- Excretion (My)Uploaded byfit3akmal

- 1 - 1 Porosity_density and Specific GravityUploaded bySalman Ahmad
- Chapter 4 Completion FluidsUploaded byMohamed Sadek
- Interior 2Uploaded bySham Salonga-Pascual
- 35918828 Rocket Propulsion Flight PerformanceUploaded byKuldeep Bhattacharjee
- Magra High-Rate Thickener Presentation 2011Uploaded byEder Salcedo
- FurnacesUploaded byKush Patel
- Sadi Carnot’s contribution to the second law of thermodynamicsUploaded byM del Rocío
- HETP Evaluation of Structured and Randomic Packing Distillation ColumnUploaded byRamón
- 157220336-NEET-Material-Solid-State.pdfUploaded bynithiaashree
- Volume 1Uploaded byAvinash Raju
- aminaiKatiluoseUploaded byDonatas Bertasius
- 9701_y10_syUploaded byHubbak Khan
- BPVC Code Cases Supplement 6Uploaded byAnonymous 2D4zzkR
- PANI-Co3O4.pdfUploaded byAnonymous KjmtKuJ09
- Seismic AnalysisUploaded byvinod_comment
- Jp 9705075Uploaded byMoh Syaifudin
- Light student.docUploaded byzaki
- NJ-ebooks : Fundamental Optical DesignUploaded byNile_Jockey
- Plasticity Simulation Tips & Tricks _ CAE AssociatesUploaded bycris
- Machine DesignUploaded byJAN
- Lab ManualUploaded bychanjunshen_rmc
- Pushing the Limits of Liquid Chromatography - The Analytical Scientist_Issue_0615Uploaded byGoutamSastry
- OasisUploaded byairomaticccorp
- Weather StationsUploaded byDean Jones
- Mitutoyo Testing EquipmentsUploaded byBiljana Ušćumlić
- ChemCam Fact SheetUploaded byziggie_lenz
- Heat GuideUploaded byPaula Andrea Cortés Arias
- HE3 Semi-Batch Reactor TextUploaded byMiranda Hasanah Arrasyid
- Bitumen PenetrationUploaded byShyamkumar Naidu
- PhysicsUploaded byagujjaraos