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Practical Physiology

2nd Lab.

Total White Blood Cell


(Total WBC count)
Lab. no. 2: Total WBC Count
Follow the same procedure as in case of RBC
count, but use the white blood cell pipette of the
haemacytometer, which gives a blood dilution
of (20) times only.
-The white cell pipette has a smaller bulb than
the red cell pipette and contains a white bead.
The mark above the bulb is designated (11). It
requires a larger quantity of blood, so don’t
begin to suck until a large drop of blood is
available after pricking the thumb.
Lab. no. 2: Total WBC Count
Fill to the (0.5) mark. The diluting fluid in this
case is (1.5%) solution of (acetic acid) in water,
tinted with methyl violet (methyl green or
gentian violet could be used). The acid
destroys the red cell envelopes so that they do
not interfere with the count, and the dye colors
the nuclei of the white cell making them more
prominent. After mixing, the pipette is laid aside
for 5 minutes, to ensure complete haemolysis.
Lab. no. 2: Total WBC Count
Then part of the diluting fluid in the capillary
tube should be discarded. A drop of diluted
blood is then placed on the slide taking the
same precautions as in the red cell count.
Count the №. of WBC in all the four large
corner squares under low power
objective(X10). Fine debris of the RBCs should
be ignored. Take the mean of the № of WBCs
found in these four large corner squares.
Say n = Total №. of WBCs in four large squares
Lab. no. 2: Total WBC Count

Improved Neubauer’s
counting chamber


Enlarged one large corner square

depth= 0.1 mm. ;area= 1 mm2.

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volume= 0.1 mm3.

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● counted
○ not counted
Lab. no. 2: Total WBC Count
n is the № of WBCs found in one large square.
Since the area of this square is (1mm2) and the
depth is (0.1mm); therefore, n represents the
№ of WBCs in (0.1 mm3) of diluted blood.
Therefore, nx10 represents the № of WBCs in
1 mm3 of diluted blood. Since the blood has
been diluted 20 times, therefore the № of WBC
in 1mm3 of normal blood is:
№ of WBCs(mm3)= n x 10 x 20
Lab. no. 2: Total WBC Count
Normal values of WBC count:
Average adult value is 7000 cell/mm3.
Normal range is 4000 - 11000 cell/mm3.
At birth is about 20000 cell/mm3.

Physiological causes of a rise in WBC count

(Leucocytosis) include:
1. Exercise.
2. During infancy..