# Digital Electronics

Dr. Bahawodin Baha, University of Brighton, UK. March 2007 Digital Systems, Principles and Applications, 10th Edition R.J Tocci, N. S. Windmer, G. L. Moss, 2007.
Applications:
Computers Telecommunication Automation Medical Science and Technology Transportation Space Exploration Entertainment Home Appliances Others

binary. hexadecimal Combinational logic circuits    Sequential logic circuits Computer Systems . decimal.Course Summary   Overview of Electronics Digital Electronics Number systems.

Boolean equations. decimal and hexadecimal conversions and calculations Basic logic gates: AND. Practical aspects of using logic ICs: data sheets. current and voltage characteristics. Combinational logic circuit design: General hierarchical logic design methodology     Minimisation using Karnaugh maps and Boolean algebra. DeMorgan’s laws. NOT and Ex-OR   Truth tables. timing issues. .. OR. compatibility.Course Summary (cont. families etc.) Combinational Logic Systems   Number systems: Binary. output types. Simulation of gates and combinational logic designs Implementation and testing of designs using a suitable version of TTL series ICs.

JK. D. MSI and LSI devices Synchronous counter and sequence generator design method   .) Sequential logic design  Flip-flops: SR. Flip-flop applications: Registers and counters (asynchronous). excitation tables and device operation. T types.Course Summary (cont. truth tables.

the stored programme concept.Course Summary (cont. .  Design of a microprocessor based system  Differences between microprocessors and microcontrollers.) Introduction to Microprocessor Systems  Overview of computer systems architectures. a simple microprocessor-based system.  Brief history of microprocessors and microcontrollers.

Overview of Electronics   Analogue electronics Power electronics   Physical electronics Differences between digital and other types of electronics Numerical Presentation  .

 In 1947. another Bell lab team has built a transistor from a single Molecule small enough to fit about 10 million transistors on the head of a pin.   . Transistor was invented in Bell labs in the USA. It was as tall as the face of wristwatch. In November 2001.

Digital In digital representation the quantities are not represented by proportional quantities but symbols called digits. Voltage between 0. 1.8 logic 0 and 2 – 5 logic 1. Analogue = Continuous 2. The digital representation is in discrete steps. 0 – 0. . Digital = Discrete Logic Level in digital representation.Analogue In analogue representation one quantity is represented by another quantity which is directly proportional to the first quantity.8 V and 2 V are unacceptable and are never used.Numerical Representation          There is two ways to represent numerical values.

Octal and Hexadecimal    Converting decimal to binary and Converting decimal to hexadecimal Converting binary to hexadecimal .Number systems  Type of Numbers  Decimal. Binary.

Number Systems Decimal Base of 10 Binary Base 0f 2 Hexadecimal Base of 16 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 7 8 9 A B C D E F g .

Most significant Bit To examine (0 X 2 0) + (0 X 2 1) + (0 X 2 2) + (1 X 2 3) = 8 decimal into binary 2 4 2 2 2 1 0 Reminder 0 0 0 1 LSB MSB . 810 = (1000)2 LSB. Less Significant Bit MSB.Converting Decimal to Binary 2 8      Convert Therefore.

To examine the result 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 624 312 156 78 39 19 9 4 2 1 0 Reminder 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 MSB LSB    (1 X 2 4) + (1 X 2 5) + (1 X 2 6) + (1 X 2 9) = 624 .2nd Example  Convert 624 decimal into binary 624 decimal = 1001110000 in binary.

Converting Decimal to Hex 16  3875 242 15 0 Reminder 3 2 15 MSB LSB Find the Hex equivalent of (3875) (3875) = (F23)H To examine 16 16 16    (15 X 162) + (2 X 161) + (3 X 160) = 3875 .

Converting Hex to Decimal   Convert (AF16B)16 to decimal. (AF16B)16 = [(10 X 164) + (15 X 163) + (1 X 162) + (6 X 161) + (11 X 160)] = (655360 + 61440 +256 +96 +11) = (717163)10   .

simply group them in four and write down the Hex equivalent for each group.   Example: (10110011) 2 = (1011)2 (0011)2 = (11)10 (3)10 = B316 .Converting Binary to Hex  To convert Binary into Hex.

Main Points  Digital Electronics use many exciting applications Introduction to digital electronics Number systems: Decimal. binary and hex Converting from one number system into another    .

The End  Thank you for your attention. Any questions? Good luck and have fun!   .