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Chemical Reaction is a process which transforms one or more substances into new substances.

Some bonds are broken and some new bonds are formed. Example:formation of rust (iron oxide), which is produced when oxygen in the air reacts with iron.

The substance which takes part in chemical reaction is known as the reactant. The substance which is produced as a result of chemical reaction is known as the product. For Example:- Mg + O2 MgO Here, Magnesium and Oxygen are reactants and Magnesium Oxide is the product.

Evolution of gas

Formation of precipitate
Change in colour Change in temperature Change in state

A Chemical Equation is a brief representation of chemical reactions in terms of symbols and formulas of reactants and products. Ex- NaOH + HCl NaCl + H2O
Reactants are written on LHS & products on RHS. Formula of various reactants and products are separated by plus (+) sign.
Arrow b/w reactants and products is placed such that its head is towards products.

It should represent true chemical change. Reactants and products should be written in symbols and formulas. Number of elements on LHS should be equal to that on RHS. Reaction should be in molecular form.

Chemical equation in which number of atoms of each element on reactant and product sides are equal. Law of conservation of mass is obeyed which states that
Ex- N2 + 3H2 2NH3

Combination Decomposition Displacement Double Displacement Redox

Reactions in which 2 or more reactants combine to give a single product.


A+B AB

Examples:-

Reactions in which a compound breaks down to produce 2 or more simpler substances.


AB A+B
Thermal Photolytic Electrolytic

Decomposition due to heat is called thermal decomposition.

Decomposition due to light is called photolysis or photolytic decomposition. Examples:2H2O Light 2H2 + O2 2AgCl Light 2Ag + Cl2 2AgBr Light 2Ag + Br2

Decomposition due to electricity is known as electrolytic decomposition. During electrolysis, metals are obtained at cathode and non-metals at anode. Examples:NaCl electricity Na + Cl2 Al2O3 electricity Al + O2 H2O electricity H2 + O2

Reactions in which a more reactive element displaces a less reactive element from its salt solution.
A + BC AC + B

Examples:Zn+H2SO4 KI+Cl2

ZnSO4+H2 KCl+I2

Reactions in which the exchange of ions takes place between 2 compounds to form 2 new compounds.

Examples:AgNO3 + NaCl BaCl2 + CuSO4

AgCl + NaNO3 BaSO4 + CuCl2

Reduction-Oxidation, or Redox reactions combine chemicals wanting to gain electrons (or be reduced) with chemicals that are willing to give up electrons (or be oxidized). For example, sodium (Na) gives up its outer electron (or is oxidized) by sulfur (S) to form sodium sulphide (Na2S): 2Na + S Na2S.

Reduction
Loss of Oxygen
Gain of Hydrogen

Oxidation
Gain of Oxygen Loss of Hydrogen Loss of Electrons

Gain of Electrons

- Reactant which reduces the other reactant and simultaneously oxidizes itself. - Reactant which oxidizes the other reactant and simultaneously reduces itself.
Oxidation

ZnO + C
Reduction

Zn + CO

Zinc is oxidizing agent and Carbon is reducing agent.

In catalysis, the reaction does not proceed directly, but through a third substance known as . Unlike other reagents that participate in the chemical reaction, a catalyst is not consumed by the reaction itself; however, it can be inhibited, deactivated or destroyed by secondary processes.

The process in which the elements are eaten up gradually by the action of moisture, air or a chemical like an acid. Ex- rusting of iron. Corrosion can be prevented by:Applying Paints
Applying Oil or Grease Galvanization Electroplating

The process in which the aerial oxidation of fat and oil containing food occurs to develop the unpleasant smell and taste. Rancidity can be prevented by:Using Antioxidants Storing in air tight containers Storing in refrigerators Packing with nitrogen gas in sealed packets