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Solenoid Actuators

Clint Torgersen ECE 5320 Assignment #1

Solenoid Outline
Reference List Introduction Construction Principles Applications Major Specifications Selection Factors Limitations Advantages

Reference List
Texas Instruments http://focus.ti.com Bully Dog Technologies fig 1
http://www.bullydog.com Dakota Digital http://www.dakotadigital.com

Introduction
Solenoids convert electrical energy into
mechanical work This tutorial faces the issues of linear actuator solenoids push and pull

Construction
A standard solenoid is
constructed with a core, inside the coil, made of two sections - a fixed pole piece, or backstop (A), A movable armature or plunger (B)

Construction
And an iron frame
around the coil winding (C). The magnetic lines of force created by the electric current in the coil react to close the gap (D)

Construction
Between the plunger and backstop; the
plunger moves and generates a linear force - mechanical work. The movable plunger is held in position in the center of the coil winding by a guide (E) which may be made either of non-magnetic metal or plastic.

Principles
Current passing through a helical coil winding of
closely spaced turns of copper magnet wire produces a magnetic field which surrounds the coil. If an iron structure is assembled around the winding, the magnetic force is channeled through the metal and is considerably increased because of the magnetic permeability of the iron. All solenoids develop magnetizing force, which has a relationship to the current and number of turns in the coil.

Applications
Automotive Linear Movement Small Valve Mechanisms Flow Control Non-Stick Latches Anywhere where fast linear movement is
required

Major Specifications Selection Factors


Voltage Standard values may be listed
for both AC and DC types Duty cycle - Specifies the length of time the solenoid coil is to be electrically energized and de-energized. They range from continuous to 5% intermittent Current and Power Temperature

Major Specifications Selection Factors


Stroke Distance the plunger must travel Force Push or pull energy the actuator
must exert Mounting and Environment Coil heat is bad for the Solenoid Codes and Standards

Limitations
Temperature of device may increase very
fast Limited to current input possible Limited to force of actuator Large force = Lots of money Must be mounted very firm Must control with PWM or AC

Advantages
Very strong Very fast Very customizable to specifications Several Manufacturers Great for high power short bursts

Types of Solenoids

Linear Rotary Long Stroke Micro Machine High Power