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SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

Training Document SDH

WHAT is SDH ?
Background and motivation for SDH Limitation of todays high capacity network Advantages of SDH

Training Document SDH

Definition of SDH
SDH is stands for Synchronous Digital Hierarchy and is :

An International Standard for a high capacity optical telecommunication network A synchronous digital transport system aimed at providing a more simple, economical, and flexible telecommunications network infrastructure.

Training Document SDH

Changing Network Requirements


TODAY TOMORROW
TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKING

POINT TO POINT TRANSMISSION


SUPPORTED BY

CUSTOMER NEEDS
SUPPORTED BY

FASTER PROVISIONING OF CIRCUITS AND SERVICES

MANUAL APPROACH TO NETWORK MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE

COMPUTER-BASED INTEGRATED NETWORK MANAGEMENT AND MAINTENANCE

Training Document SDH

PDH Systems Worldwide


Japan
. 397200 kbit/s
x4

USAANSI

Europe -ETSI
564992 kbit/s

97728 kbit/s
x3

274176 kbit/s
x6 x3

x4

139264 kbit/s
x4

32064 kbit/s
x5

44736 kbit/s
x7

34368 kbit/s
x4

6312 kbit/s
x4 x3

8448 kbit/s
x4

primary rate

1544 kbit/s

2048 kbit/s

x 24

x 30/31

64 kbit/s
5 Training Document SDH

Limitations of Todays High Capacity Network


Inflexible, and expensive for telecommunication networking -based on step-by-step asynchronous multiplexing

MUX 34/140 8/34 2/8

140Mbit/s

MUX 34/140 8/34 2/8

MUX 34/140 8/34 2/8

140Mbit/s

MUX 34/140 8/34 2/8

2 Mbit/s channels

2 Mbit/s channels

2 Mbit/s channels

Extremely limited network management and maintenance support capabilities - no spare signal capacity in plesiochronous frame structures Higher rate line systems are proprietary.
-no possibility of inter-working
6 Training Document SDH

Advantages of SDH ( I )
Designed

for cost effective, simplified add & drop

Function
- Compared to the older PDH system, low bit rate channels can be easily extracted from and inserted into the high-speed bit streams in SDH. It is now no longer necessary to apply the complex and costly procedure of demultiplexing then re-multiplexing the plesiosynchronous structure.
140 Mbit/s 34 Mbit/s 2 Mbit/s STM-1 FDDI ATM

STM-N

Reliability -Modern SDH networks include various automatic back-up circuit and repair mechanisms which are designed to cope with system faults and are monitored by management. As a result, failure of a link or an NE does not lead to failure of the entire network.
7 Training Document SDH

Advantages of SDH ( II )
High Transmission rates -Transmission rates of up to 10Gbps can be achieved in modern SDH systems making it the most suitable technology for backbones-the superhighways in todays telecommunication networks.
155 Mbit/s

622 Mbit/s
2.5 Gbit/s 10 Gbit/s

STM-1

STM-4

STM-16

STM-64

Future-proof platform for new services -SDH is the ideal platform for a wide range of services including POTS, ISDN, mobile radio, and data communications (LAN, WAN, etc.). It is also able to handle more recent services such as video on demand and digital video broadcasting via ATM.
8 Training Document SDH

Advantages of SDH ( III )


Provide

built-in signal capacity for advanced network management and maintenance capabilities
-With SDH, network providers can react quickly and easily to the requirements of their customers. For example, leased lines can be switched in a matter of minutes. The network provider can use standardized network elements (NE) that can be controlled and monitored from a central location via a telecommunications management network (TMN) system. Interconnection -SDH makes it much easier to set up gateways between different network providers and to SONET systems. The SDH interfaces are globally standardized, making it possible to combine NEs from different manufacturers into a single network thus reducing equipment costs. -The trend in transport networks is toward ever-higher bit rates, such as STM-256 (time division multiplex, TDM). The current high costs of such NEs however are a restricting factor. The alternative lies in dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM), a technology enabling the multiple use of single mode optical fibers. As a result, a number of wavelengths can be used as carriers for the digital signals and transmitted simultaneously through the fibers.
9 Training Document SDH

Synchronous Network Structure


140Mbit/s 2Mbit/s

TM

STM-1

ADM
STM-1, STM-4 2Mbit/s

34Mbit/s

ATM Switch

ADM
STM-1

STM-4/16 ADM

140Mbit/s 34Mbit/s 8Mbit/s 2Mbit/s

DXC
LAN ADM : Add Drop Multiplexer DXC : Digital Cross Connect TM : Terminal Multiplexer DSC: Digital Switching Center LAN: Local Area Network 10 Training Document SDH 2Mbit/s STM-1 / STS-3c Gateway to SONET 34Mbit/s 140Mbit/s STM-1 STM-4

DSC

STM-1 Frame Structure

11

Training Document SDH

STM-1 Frame
270 bytes
1 1 9

270 columns 9 rows capacity: 270 bytes x 9 = 2430 Bytes


125 s

RSOH
9 lines

Pointer MSOH
9

Payload

frame length: 125 s

12

Training Document SDH

Frame Structure of the STM-1 Signal


270 bytes 9 lines

SOH Area
operational functions monitoring functions control functions

1 1

RSOH
Pointer

Payload

MSOH
9

125 s

AU-Pointer
shows the beginning of the virtual container of the highest level

Payload Area
transport of the data
13 Training Document SDH

Functions and characteristics of the Section Overhead (SOH)


includes operation, monitoring and controlling functions each byte is equivalent to an 64-kbit/s channel in regenerators only the first three lines are accessable in multiplexers the last five lines are accessable preserves the connections from the point of creation 270 bytes until the point of decomposition
1

9 lines

RSOH
Pointer

Payload

MSOH
9

0
14 Training Document SDH

125 s

Structure of the RSOH


1 9
A1 A1 A2 E1 D2 H2 B2 B2 K1 D5 D8 D11 Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 M1 A2 A2 J0 F1 D3 H3 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2 H3 H3

Frame Alignment (A1, A2) Section Trace (J0 Identfication of regenerator source) Parity check (B1 calculated by regenerator and multiplexers) Data communication channels (D1...D3, F1 between regenerators) Voice communication channels (E1 between regenerators)

1
RSOH

A1 B1 D1

AU pointer

H1 B2 D4

MSOH

D7 D10

S1

15

Training Document SDH

Structure of the MSOH


Parity Check (B2)

1 1
RSOH
A1 B1 D1
AU pointer

9
A1 A1 A2 E1 D2 H2 B2 B2 K1 D5 D8 D11 Z1 Z1 Z2 Z2 M1 A2 A2 J0 F1 D3 H3 K2 H3 H3

Automatic protection switching (K1, K2 Bytes)


Data communication channels (D4 to D12 between multiplexers) Clock source information (S1) Remote Error Indication (M1) Voice communications channels (E2 between multiplexers)

H1 B2 D4

D6
D9 D12 E2

MSOH

D7 D10

S1

16

Training Document SDH

STM-1 FRAME (to ITU-T G.707)


270 COLUMS(BYTES) 1 RSOH AU POINTER 9 261 COLUMS(BYTES)

Payload Area transport of the data

MSOH

C-4 (DATA PAYLOAD)

AU-Pointer shows the beginning of the virtual container of the highest level
17 Training Document SDH

PATH OVERHEAD (POH)

STM-1 FRAME (to ITU-T G.707)


270 COLUMS(BYTES) 1 RSOH 260 COLUMS(BYTES) AU POINTER
TU Pointer

261 COLUMS(BYTES)

MSOH

VC Path OverHead

C-4 (DATA PAYLOAD)


Virtual container Container

Low Rate Tributary Signal

Low Order POH Tributary Signal


18 Training Document SDH
Tributary Unit Frame

Structure of the POH

VC-4/ VC-3 POH


J1 POH B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 V5 J2 N2 1

Parity check B3, V5/ BIP-2 calculat by path terminating point. Alarm and performance information (V5, G1) Signal label C2/V5 Multiframe indication for TUs (H4) User communications channel between path elements (F2, F3) Identification of the Path Source (Path Trace J1, J2) Higher order path automatic protection switching.(K3,K4) Tandem Connection monitoring (TCM) function. (N1,N2)

VC-12/ VC-11 POH

K4

HO-POH
19

LO-POH

Training Document SDH

Functions and characteristics of the Path Overhead (POH)


includes path trace identifier, alarm signals and operational signals secures the transport of a container to the desired destination
1 1 9

270bytes

9 lines

RSOH
POH

Pointer

Payload

MSOH
9

0
20 Training Document SDH

125 s

SDH Network Section


Path Section Multiplexer Section
Synchronous Multiplexer

Multiplexer Section
Synchronous Multiplexer

Regenerator Regenerator Section Section

Regenerator Section

Regenerator Section

21

Training Document SDH

SDH POINTERS

22

Training Document SDH

Difference between PDH and SDH transport techniques


technique with frame memory (PDH)
t=0 transport Signal overhead 1

Signal 2

Signal 3

Signal 4 t=T

technique with pointer processing (SDH)


t=0

transport overhead t=T

23

Training Document SDH

Signal Processing
STM-1 Signal
Pointer Payload

SOH

VC-n POH

VC - Virtual Container POH - Path Overhead SOH - Section Overhead

24

Training Document SDH

Why do we need pointer actions?


neighbouring network elements (NEs) may have different bitrates in one NE the frequency of input fin may differ from the output fout
1 1 9

270bytes

9 lines

RSOH
POH

Pointer

Payload

MSOH
9

0
25 Training Document SDH

125 s

Tasks of the Pointer


the pointer shows the begin of the Virtual Container within the higher structure adaptation of the bitrate of the VC to the velocity of the tranport channel (AU, TU) a flag within the pointer signals the changes made kind of stuffing will be signalized also
STM-1 Signal Pointer Payload VC-n

SOH

POH

26

Training Document SDH

AU4-Pointer
begin of the VC-4 Pointer AU4-Pointer: - Bytes H1, H2, H3 - Byte H3 includes dont care information Range: 0 <= X <= 782 fin < fout positive justification: - add three bytes behind H3 - new pointer value = old pointer value + 1 - the new pointer value will be fixed for at least two STM-1 frames

STM-1 STM-1

H1H2H3

VC-4
H1H2H3

27

Training Document SDH

AU4-Pointer
AU4-Pointer:

STM-1 STM-1 STM-1

H1H2H3

fin > fout


VC-4
H1H2H3

negative justification: - fill H3 with payload information - new pointer value = old pointer value - 1 - the new pointer value will be fixed for at least two STM-1 frames

VC-4
H1H2H3

28

Training Document SDH

SDH Multiplexing Structure and Frame Format

29

Training Document SDH

Mapping In SDH

30

Training Document SDH

Multiplexing Elements
container C-n n=1,2,3,4 m=1,2 n=3,4 n=1,2,3,4 POH virtual container VC-n PTR tributary unit TU-n bitrates G.702 C1, C2 C3, C4 VC-n TU-1, -2

tributary unit group TUG-2 PTR administration unit AU-n SOH synchronous transport module STM-1

n=3,4

VC-n
AU-n, n=3,4 AU-n, n=3,4

synchronous transport module N STM-n N=4,16

element
31 Training Document SDH

abbreviation

payload

SDH Multiplexing / Mapping for 2Mbit/s.

32

Training Document SDH

Container C-12 (Asynchronous Mapping for 2 MBit/s)


1 Byte R R D D . . . . R R R D R R D . 256 x D . . D R R R R R . . . . D D D R R R R . R: D: Block 1 O: C1, C2: Block 2 Fixed Stuff Bits Data-Bits (of 2Mb/s Tributary-Signal) Overhead-Bits (For future use) Justification Indication-Bits -C1 = 0 -> S1 = Data-Bit -C1 = 1 -> S1 = Stuff-Bit -C2 = 0 -> S2 = Data-Bit -C2 = 1 -> S2 = Stuff-Bit Actual Justification-Bits -Justification is indicated by C1, C2 (Majority-Vote out of 3)

136 Bytes (500 ms)

C1 C2 O O O R R R D D D D . . . . . . 256 x D . . . . . . D D D D R R R R R R R R

S1, S2: Block 3

C1 C2 O O O R R R D D D D . . . . . . 256 x D . . . . . . D D D D R R R R R R R R
C1 C2 O O O R R S1 S2 D D D D . . . . . 255 x D . . . . . . D D D D R R R R R R R R
STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4

Justification Capacity +/- 1 Bit every 500 ms -> +/- 2000 Bits (~+/- 1000 ppm) Speed of C-12 136 Byte x 8 Bit / 500 ms = 2.176 MBit/s

Block 4

TUG-3

TUG-2

TU-12

VC-12

C-12

2Mbit/s

33

Training Document SDH

Virtual Container VC-12 / Mapping of C-12 into VC-12


1 Byte
#1 #2

BIP-2

REI

RFI

Signal Label

RDI

V5
BIP-2: Bit Interleaved Parity 2 REI: Remote Error Indication (Old name FEBE) RFI: Remote Failure Indication Signal Label: Specifies the content of the VC RDI: Remote Defect Indication (Old name=FERF)

#35 #36 #37

J2

140 Bytes (500 ms)

Path Trace J2
#70 #71 #72 N2: #105 #106 #107 J2: Repetitively transmitted 16-Byte Frame containing a Path Access Point Identifier

N2

Network Operator Byte N2


Used for Tandem Connection Monitoring

K4

APS Channel

Spare

K4: APS-Channel: Automatic Protection Switching Signaling Spare: For Future use #140
STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4

Speed of VC-12: 140 Byte x 8 Bit/500 ms= 2.240 Mbit/s


TUG-3 TUG-2

TU-12

VC-12

C-12

2Mbit/s

35

Training Document SDH

SDH Multiplexing Elements Virtual Container- VC


creation through addition of the POH is transported through the network as one unit if the VC contains several VCs, it will have a pointer area 1 4 VC-12 multi container payload through concatenation
9 36

Training Document SDH

Tributary Unit TU-12


N N N N S S P P V1 (TU-Pointer #1) Cell #105 Cells #106 #138 Cell #139 V2 (TU-Pointer #2) Cell #0 144 Bytes (500 ms) Cells #1 #33 Cell #34 V3 (TU-Pointer #3) Cell #35 Cells #36 #68 Cell #69 V4 (TU-Pointer #4) Cell #70 Cells #71 #103 Cell #104
STM-N AUG AU-4

P P P P P P P P

V1+V2

N: New Data Flag (NDF) -Flag NOT active -> NNNN = 0110 -Flag active -> NNNN = 1001 (Inverted) S: Size Indication -For TU-12 SS=10 P: 10-Bit Pointer Value -Range for TU-12 is 0.139 -Points to that Cell, Where the VC-12 starts (Location of V5)

V3

Used for justification -Incase of Negative Pointer Justification, this Byte is used as Auxiliary-Cell Reserved (For future Use)

V4

Speed of TU-12: 144 Byte x 8 Bit/500 ms= 2.304 Mbit/s


VC-4
TUG-3 TUG-2

TU-12

VC-12

C-12

2Mbit/s

37

Training Document SDH

Mapping of VC-12 into TU-12


Important Facts: V1 The TU-12 must be locked to the HigherOrder VC (VC-3 or VC-4) The 10-Bit TU-Pointer points to that cell, where the V5-Byte Of the VC-12 is located (Start of VC-12) The VC-12 can float within the TU-12 since both may have Different Clock rates If the incoming VC-12 is too fast, the excess data is carried By V3. The V5-Byte moves 1 cell up in the TU-12 and the pointer value decrements by 1 -> Negative Pointer Justification If the incoming VC-12 is too slow, the byte immediately after V3 (Cell #35) is used as Stuff-Byte to stuff the excess transport capacity of the TU-12. The V5-byte moves 1 cell down in the TU-12 and the pointer value increments by 1. -> Positive Pointer Justification

35 Byte

V2

VC-12

35 Byte

V3
35 Byte

35 Byte

V4

38

Training Document SDH

Pointer Justification on TU-12 Level


V1 Cell #105 V1 0 1 1 0 1 0 I D New Data FlagSize I D I V2 D I D I D

Cell #139 V2 Cell #0

Cell #34 V3 Cell #35

Negative Justification Opportunity (Used to carry Data) Positive Justification Opportunity (Used as Stuff-Byte)

Inverted value of all D-Bits (Decrease) Indicates Negative Justification Inverted value of all I-Bits (Increase) Indicates Positive Justification

Cell #69 V4 Cell #70

Under normal conditions the pointer is justified by 1 (Increase or Decrease as soon as the phase different between the VC-12 and TU-12 exceeds 8 Bits (1Byte). This is Indicated by inverting either the I or the D Bits of the 10-Bit Pointer (Majority vote out of 5). If a random change of the pointer value becomes necessary, this is indicated by activating (inverting) the new Data Flag.

Cell #104

Speed of TU-12: 144 Byte x 8 Bit/500 ms= 2.304 Mbit/s

39

Training Document SDH

SDH Multiplexing Elements Tributary Unit - TU


creation through addition of a pointer to the VC slip free transmission of a VC also in case of plesiochronous behaviour of the network element the TU definition refers to the VC, the AU to STM-1 4 1 4 identical to AU 2 Mbit/s
1

Pointer
TU-12

V5

VC-12 POH

--> C-12

40

Training Document SDH

V1, 1 #105, 1

V1, 2 #105, 2

V1, 3 #105, 3

Byte Interleaved Multiplexing of 3 x TU-12 into TUG-2 Multiframe


Column 1
V1,1

#139,1 V2, 1 #0, 1

#139,2 V2, 2 #0, 2

#139,3 V2, 3 #0, 3

2
V1,2

3
V1,3

10

11

12

#105,1 #105,2 #105,3

#139, 1 V3, 1 #35, 1

#139, 2 V3, 2 #35, 2

#139, 3 V3, 3 #35, 3


V2,1 V2,2 V2,3 #0,1 #0,2 #0,3

#139,1 #139,2 #139,3

#69, 1 V4, 1 #70, 1

#69, 2 V4, 2 #70, 2

#69, 3 V4, 3 #70, 3

TUG-2 multiframe
V3,1 V3,2
V3,3 #35,1 #35,2 #35,3

#34,1

#34,2 #34,3

#104, 1

#104, 2

#104, 3

#69,1 V4,1 V4,2 V4,3 #70,1 #70,2 #70,3

#69,2 #69,3

TU-12 #1

TU-12 #2

TU-12 #3

#104,1 #104,2 #104,3

STM-N

AUG

AU-4

VC-4

TUG-3

TUG-2

TU-12

VC-12

C-12

2Mbit/s

41

Training Document SDH

125 ms

125 ms

125 ms

125 ms

Byte Interleaved Multiplexing of 7 x TUG-2 into 1 TUG-3


TUG-2 #1
Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9

TUG-2 #2
Column 1 2 3 12 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9

TUG-2 #3
Column 1
2 3

TUG-2 #7
12 Column 1
Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 2 3

12

NPI
Bit Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 1--------------------------8 1 0 0 1 X X 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 X X X X X X X X

Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 NPI

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

17 18 19

76 77 78 79 80 81 82 20 21 22 23 24

83 84 85 86

TUG-3 STUFF

TUG-3 STUFF

TUG-3

STM-N

AUG

AU-4

VC-4

TUG-3

TUG-2

TU-12

VC-12

C-12

2Mbit/s

42

Training Document SDH

Byte Interleaved Multiplexing of 3 x TUG-3 (Containing TUG-2s) into VC-4


TUG-3 #1
Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 2 3 4 5 6 84 85 86 Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 2 3

TUG-3 #2
4 5 6 84 85 86 Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 2 3

TUG-3 #3
4 5 6 84 85 86

NPI

NPI

NPI TUG-3 # 2 STUFF

TUG-3 # 2 STUFF

Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9

TUG-3 # 2 STUFF

TUG-3 # 2 STUFF

TUG-3 # 2 STUFF

3 4
TUG-3 # 1 STUFF NPI #1

5
TUG-3 # 2 STUFF NPI #2

6
TUG-3 # 3 STUFF NPI #3

9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261

TUG-3 # 1 STUFF

TUG-3 # 2 STUFF

TUG-3 # 3 STUFF

VC-4 Path OH

VC-4 Stuff

VC-4 Stuff

VC-4
VC-4
TUG-3 TUG-2

STM-N

AUG

AU-4

TU-12

VC-12

TUG-3 # 2 STUFF

C-12

2Mbit/s

43

Training Document SDH

SDH Multiplexing Elements Tributary Unit Group - TUG


multiplexing of several TUs into a VC identical to AUG

44

Training Document SDH

Administrative Unit AU-4


265 266 267 268 269 Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4
H1

9
#522

10 11 12 13 14 15 16
#523 #524

17

264

#607

#608

#609

#610

#611

#694

#695

AU-4 Pointer
Y Y H2 1* 1* H3 H3 H3

#696

#697

#698

#781

#782

#0

#1

#2

Row 5
Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9

#87 #174 #261 #348 #435

#88 #175 #262 #349 #436

#89 #176 #263 #350 #437

AU-4 Payload

#85

#86

#172 #259 #346 #433 #520

#173 #260 #347 #434 #521

N N N N S S P P
H1+H2

P P P P P P P P
Y-Bytes: Stuff Byte (Value=93 hex) -Used as H1 in AU-3 Pointer Stuff Byte (Value=FF hex) -Used as H2 in AU-3 Pointer Used for justification - Incase of Negative pointer justification, these bytes are used as Auxiliary-Cells
C-12 2Mbit/s

N: New Data Flag (NDF) -Flag NOT active -> NNNN = 0110 -Flag active -> NNNN = 1001 (Inverted) S: Size Indication -Not Specified on AU-4 Level (Dont care Bits)

1*-Bytes:

H3-Bytes: P: 10-Bit Pointer Value -Range for TU-12 is 0.728 -Points to that Cell, Where the VC-4 starts
STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4
TUG-3 TUG-2

TU-12

VC-12

45

Training Document SDH

270

Pointer Justification on AU-4 Level


Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5
H1 Y Y H2 1* 1* H3 H3 H3

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

17

Negative Justification Opportunity (Used to carry Data)

Row 6
Row 7 Row 8 Row 9

Positive Justification Opportunity (Used as Stuff-Byte)

H1 0 1 1 0 1 0
New Data Flag Size

I D

H2 D I D I D

I D

Inverted value of all D-Bits (Decrease) Indicates Negative Justification Inverted value of all I-Bits (Increase) Indicates Positive Justification

Under normal conditions the pointer is justified by 1 (Increase or Decrease) as soon as The phase different between the VC-4 and AU-4 exceeds (3 Byte). This is Indicated by inverting either the I- or the D-Bits of the 10-Bit Pointer (Majority vote out of 5) If a random change of the pointer value becomes necessary, this is indicated by activating (inverting the new Data Flag

46

Training Document SDH

Administrative Unit Group AUG


267 268 Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 269 270

AU-Pointer(s) Payload

Capacity of AUG: 1 x AU-4 (European standard)


STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4
TUG-3 TUG-2

TU-12

VC-12

C-12

2Mbit/s

47

Training Document SDH

SDH Multiplexing Elements Administrative Unit Group - AUG


multiplexing of several AUs into a STM-N

48

Training Document SDH

9 Byte

261 Bytes

9 Bytes

STM-1

SOH AU
ADMINISTRATIVE UNIT (AU) POINTERS
A B C D E F G A B C D E F G A B C D E F G

POH

HIGHER LEVEL VC

B a

C b c

TUG TU POINTER
a

SOH = SECTION OVERHEAD VC = VRITUAL CONTAINER


b c

POH = PATH OVERHEAD TUG = TRIBUTARY UNIT GROUP PATH OVERHEAD

STRUCTURE OF STM-1 FRAME


49

TU

VC

STUFF AND JUSTIFICATION BITS C

Training Document SDH

PLESIOCHRONOUS STREAM

SDH Multiplexing / Mapping for 140Mbit/s.

50

Training Document SDH

How to integrate plesiochronous signals into the synchronous transport module?


container
Path Overhead virtual container Pointer administration unit
AU-4/ AUG1 C-4

plesiochronous Signal (140Mbit/s)


VC-4

Section Overhead
synchronous transport module
51 Training Document SDH

STM-1

Asynchronous Mapping for 140 MBit/s into C-4


Block

1
D

2
C

3
R

4
R

5
R

6
C

7
R

8
R

9
R

10 11 12 13 14 15 16
C R R R C R R

17 18 19 20
R C R C

13 Bytes 260 Bytes

Note: Only 1 of 9 Subframes is shown (1 Subframe=20 Blocks = 1 Row of a C-4)

Byte 1
D-Block DDDDDDDD DDD...

Byte 213
96 x D ...DDD D: Data-Bits (of 140Mb/s Tributary-Signal) R: Fixed Stuff Bits

C-Block

CRRRRROO

DDD...

96 x D

...DDD

O: Overhead-Bits (For future use) C: Justification Indication-Bits C = 0 -> S = Data-Bit C = 1 -> S = Stuff-Bit S: Actual Justification-Bits Justification is indicated by C-Bits (Majority-Vote out of 5)

R-Block

RRRRRRRR

DDD...

96 x D

...DDD

S-Block

DDDDDDSR

DDD...

96 x D

...DDD

52

Training Document SDH

Virtual Container VC-4 (C-4 Structure)


260 259 261

Column
Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9

1 J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

C4

VC-4 Path Overhead (Higher Order POH)

Speed of VC-4 261 x 9 Byte x 8 Bit / 125 ms = 150.336 MBit/s


STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4 C-4

53

Training Document SDH

265

266

267

268

269

Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9
H1

9
#522

10 11 12 13 14 15 16
#523 #524

17

264

#607

#608

#609

#610

#611

#694

#695

AU-4 Pointer
Y Y H2 1* 1* H3 H3 H3

#696

#697

#698

#781

#782

#0

#1

#2

#87 #174 #261 #348 #435

#88 #175 #262 #349 #436

#89 #176 #263 #350 #437

AU-4 Payload

#85

#86

#172 #259 #346 #433 #520

#173 #260 #347 #434 #521

N N N N S S P P
H1+H2

P P P P P P P P
Y-Bytes: Stuff Byte (Value=93 hex) -Used as H1 in AU-3 Pointer Stuff Byte (Value=FF hex) -Used as H2 in AU-3 Pointer Used for justification - Incase of Negative pointer justification, these bytes are used as Auxiliary-Cells
C-4

N: New Data Flag (NDF) -Flag NOT active -> NNNN = 0110 -Flag active -> NNNN = 1001 (Inverted)

1*-Bytes:

S: Size Indication -Not Specified on AU-4 Level (Dont care Bits)


P: 10-Bit Pointer Value -Range for TU-12 is 0.728 -Points to that Cell, Where the VC-4 starts
STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4

H3-Bytes:

54

Training Document SDH

270

Administrative Unit AU-4

STM-1 Frame
9 3 1 5
RSOH
MSOH AU-PTR

270 Bytes 1

AU Administrative Unit VC Virtual Container C Container

STM#1
AU-4

P O H
VC-4

Payload
C-4

55

Training Document SDH

SDH Multiplexing / Mapping for 34Mbit/s.

56

Training Document SDH

Asynchronous Mapping for 34 MBit/s into C-3


Note: Only 1 of 3 Subframes (3 Rows) are shown
Block

1
R

2
R R R

3
R R R

4
R R R

5
R R R

6
R R R

7
R R R

8
R R R

9
R R R

10 11 12 13 14
C C C R R R R R R R R R R R R

15 16
R R R R R R

17 18 19
R R R R R R R R R

20
C C S

Blks 21.40 R Blks 41.60 R

4 Bytes

1 Byte 84 Bytes

Byte 1
R-Block

Byte 2
DDD...

Byte 3
24 x D

Byte 4 D: Data-Bits (of 34Mb/s Tributary-Signal


...DDD

RRRRRRRR

C-Block R R R R R R C1C2

DDD...

24 x D

...DDD

R: Fixed Stuff Bits O: Overhead-Bits (For future use) C1, C2: Justification Indication-Bits Cx = 0 -> Sx = Data-Bit Cx = 1 -> Sx = Stuff-Bit S1, S2: Actual Justification-Bits Justification is indicated by C1, C2-Bits (Majority-Vote out of 5)

S-Block

RRRRRRRR

R R R R R R R S1 S2 D D D D D D D

DDDDDDDD

-Block

RRRRRRRR

57

Training Document SDH

Virtual Container VC-3


84 Column Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

J1
B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1

C3

VC-3 Path Overhead (Lower Order POH)

Speed of VC-3 85 x 9 Byte x 8 Bit / 125 ms = 48.960 MBit/s


STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4
TUG-3

TU-3

VC-3

83

C-3

85

34M

58

Training Document SDH

Tributary Unit TU-3


84
82 83 85 Column Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 Fixed Stuff

1
H1 H2 H3

TU-3 Payload

TU-3 Pointer

N N N N S S P P H1+H2

P P P P P P P P H3-Bytes: Used for justification - Incase of Negative pointer justification, these bytes are used as Auxiliary-Cell.

N: New Data Flag (NDF) -Flag NOT active -> NNNN = 0110 -Flag active -> NNNN = 1001 (Inverted) S: Size Indication -Not Specified on TU-3 Level (Dont care Bits)

P: 10-Bit Pointer Value -Range for TU-3 is 0.764 -Points to that Cell, Where the VC-3 starts (Location of J1) 59 Training Document SDH

86

Pointer Justification on TU-3 Level


Column Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 Fixed Stuff 1 H1 H2 H3 2 3 4 5 6

Negative Justification Opportunity (Used to carry Data)

Positive Justification Opportunity (Used as Stuff-Byte)

0 1

H1 1 0 1

0
Size

New Data Flag

Under normal conditions the pointer is justified by 1 (Increase or Decreases soon as The phase different between the VC-3 and TU-3 exceeds 1Byte. This is Indicated by inverting either the I- or the D-Bits of the 10-Bit Pointer (Majority vote out of 5) If a random change of the pointer value becomes necessary, this is indicated by Inverted value of all D-Bits (Decrease) activating (inverting the new Data Flag Indicates Negative Justification

H2 D I D

Inverted value of all I-Bits (Increase) Indicates Positive Justification


STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4
TUG-3

TU-3

VC-3

C-3

85

34M

60

Training Document SDH

86

Tributary Unit Group TUG-3 (TU-3 Structure)


Column Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 TU-Pointer Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 84 85 86

TUG-3 Payload

Speed of TUG-3 85 x 9 Byte x 8 Bit / 125 ms = 48.960 MBit/s


STM-N AUG AU-4 VC-4
TUG-3

TU-3

VC-3

C-3

34M

61

Training Document SDH

Byte Interleaved Multiplexing of 3 x TUG-3 (Containing TUG-3s) into VC-4


TUG-3 #1
Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9
H1 H2 H3 TUG-3 # 2 STUFF

TUG-3 #2
84 85 86 Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9
H1 H2 H3 TUG-3 # 2 STUFF

TUG-3 #3
84 85 86 Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9
H1 H2 H3 TUG-3 # 2 STUFF

84 85 86

Column 1 Row 1 Row 2 Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 Row 8 Row 9

TUG-3 # 2 STUFF

TUG-3 # 2 STUFF

10 11 12 13 14 15 16

17 18 19

20 21 22 23 24

251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261

VC-4 Path OH

VC-4 Stuff

VC-4 Stuff

H1 H1 H1 H2 H2 H2 H3 H3 H3 TUG-3 # 1 STUFF TUG-3 # 2 STUFF TUG-3 # 3 STUFF

VC-4

STM-N

AUG

AU-4

VC-4

TUG-3

TU-3

VC-3

TUG-3 # 2 STUFF

C-3

34M

62

Training Document SDH

STM-1 Multiplexing and Pointer Structure


1 RSOH 9
AU-4 Pointer
J1 R R

270 140 Mbit/s --> C-4

STM-1 VC-4 261 TU-3 86

VC-4 POH

MSOH

VC-3 POH

TU-3 Pointer

J1

85 34 Mbit/s, 45 Mbit/s --> C-3

9 N P I R R

86

TU-2
9

VC-3

12 4
V5

12 4
TU-2 Pointer
V5

VC-2 POH

12

TUG-3
9

TU-12 VC-12 POH Pointer

6 Mbit/s --> C-2 VC-12 (VC-11)


9

VC-2

2 Mbit/s --> C-12


9

TUG-2

TU-12
63 Training Document SDH

STM-1 Signals as Transport Pipe


A STM-1 Signal Can Transport:
One 140 Mbit/s PDH Signal

Three 34 Mbit/s PDH Signals


Sixty-three 2 Mbit/s PDH Signals Combinations, eg. twenty-one 2 Mbit/s and Two 34 Mbit/s PDH Signals ATM cells, FDDI, DQDB Protocols, etc.
64 Training Document SDH

Synchronous Byte-interleaved multiplexing

65

Training Document SDH

Error and Alarm Monitoring

66

Training Document SDH

Error and Alarm monitoring

67

Training Document SDH

Anomalies and defects in SDH


SDH
LOS

Anomalies/Defects
Loss of signal

Detection criteria
Drop in incoming optical power level causes high bit error rate A1, A2 errored for 625 s If OOF persists for 3 ms Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8 covers the whole STM-N frame Mismatch of the accepted and expected Trace

OH Byte

OOF LOF RS BIP

Out of frame Loss of frame Regenerator Section BIP Error (B1)

A1,A2 A1,A2 B1

Error
RS-TIM

Regenerator Section Trace Identifier Mismatch Identifier in byte J0

J0

68

Training Document SDH

Anomalies and defects in SDH


SDH
MS BIP Error

Anomalies/Defects
Multiplex Section BIP Error (B2)

Detection criteria
Mismatch of the recovered and computed N x BIP-24 covers the whole frame except RSOH
K2 (bits 6, 7, 8) = 111 Signal for 3 frames Number of detected B2 Indication errors in the sink side encoded in byte M1 of the source side. K2 (bits 6, 7 8) = 111 for Indication z frames (z = 3 to 5)

OH Byte
B2

MS-AIS

Multiplex Section Alarm Indication Multiplex Section Remote Error

K2

MS-REI

M1

MS-RDI

Multiplex Section Remote Defect

K2

69

Training Document SDH

Anomalies and defects in SDH


SDH Anomalies/Defects Detection criteria OH Byte

AU-AIS

Administrative Unit Alarm Indication Signal Administrative Unit Loss of Pointer

All ones in the AU pointer bytes H1 and H2 8 to 10 NDF enable 8 to 10 invalid pointers Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8 covers entire VC-n C2 = 0 for 5 frames Mismatch of the accepted and expected Trace Identifier in byte J1

H1, H2

AU-LOP

H1, H2

HP BIP Error HO Path BIP Error (B3)

B3

HP-UNEQ HP-TIM

HO Path Unequipped HO Path Trace Identifier Mismatch

C2 J1

70

Training Document SDH

Anomalies and defects in SDH


SDH
HP-REI

Anomalies/Defects
HO Path Remote Error Indication

Detection criteria
Number of detected B3 errors in the sink side encoded in byte G1 (bits 1, 2, 3, 4) of the source side.

OH Byte
G1

HP-RDI

HO Path Remote Defect Indication


HO Path Payload Label Mismatch

G1 (bit 5) = 1 for z frames (z = 3, 5 or 10)


Mismatch of the accepted and expected Payload Label in byte C2 H4 (bits 7, 8) multiframe not recovered for X ms All ones in the TU pointer bytes V1 and V2

G1

HP-PLM

C2

TU-LOM

Loss of Multiframe X = 1 to 5 ms Tributary Unit Alarm Indication Signal

H4

TU-AIS

V1-V4

71

Training Document SDH

Anomalies and defects in SDH


SDH
TU-LOP

Anomalies/Defects
Tributary Unit Loss of Pointer

Detection criteria
8 to 10 NDF enable 8 to 10 invalid pointers

OH Byte
V1,V2

LP BIP Error LO Path BIP Error

Mismatch of the recovered and computed BIP-8 (B3) or BIP-2 (V5 bits 1, 2) covers entire VC-n.

V5

LP-UNEQ

LO Path Unequipped

VC-3: C2 = 0 for 5 frames V5 frames VC-m (m = 2, 11, 12): V5 (bits 5, 6, 7) = 000 for 5 multiframes Mismatch of the accepted and expected Trace Identifier in byte J1 (VC-3) or J2 V5

LP-TIM

LO Path Trace Identifier Mismatch

72

Training Document SDH