Steam cycle and steam power plant

http://www.ohio.edu/mechanical/th ermo/property_tables/H2O/H2O_Su per3.html

Elements in steam cycle
• • • • • • • • • Saturation temperature Subcooled liquid Compressed liquid Saturated liquid Vapor Saturated vapor Superheated vapor Degree superheat Degree subcooled • • • • Wet vapor Quality Moisture Latent heat of vaporization • Critical point • Sensible heat • Latent heat

steam cycle

Specify whether the steam is wet, dry or superheated for the following conditions:
• • • • • • • • t = 200⁰C, p = 1.44 MPa t = 220⁰C, p = 2.318 MPa p = 1.0 MPa, s = 6.672 kJ/kg•K p = 3.0 MPa, t = 234⁰C t = 250⁰C, v = 54.2x10⁻3 m3/kg P = 11.0 MPa, h = 2805 kJ/kg P = 4.0 MPa, s = 5.897 kJ/kg•K p = 15.0 MPa, t = 310⁰C

Processes of vapors
• • • • • Constant pressure Constant volume Constant temperature Constant entropy Constant enthalpy

Rankine cycle

Ideal Rankine cycle processes (SPSP)
• Adiabatic pumping (1 to 2) • Constant pressure heat addition of heat in the steam generator (2 to 3) • Isentropic expansion in the engine (3 to 4) • Constant pressure heat rejection in the condenser (4 to 1)

Ideal versus actual rankine cycle

Improving rankine cycle efficiecy
• Lowering the condenser pressure in rankine cycle • Increasing the boiler pressure in rankine cycle • Superheating the steam to a higher temperature in rankine cycle • Reheat cycle • Regenerative cycle • Reheat – regenerative cycle

Rankine cycle statements
• Rankine cycle is the ideal cycle for vapor power plant • In a rankine cycle, water enters the pump as saturated liquid and is compressed isentropically to the operating pressure of the boiler • In the pump, the water pressure and temperature increases somewhat during the isentropic compression process due to a slight decrease in specific volume of water • The superheated vapor enters the turbine and expands isentropically and produces work by the rotating shaft. The temperature and pressure may drop during the process. • Steam is condensed at constant pressure in the condenser. • The boiler and condenser do not involve any work, and the pump and turbine are assumed to be isentropic.

Rankine cycle statements
• Rankine cycle power plant converts 26% of the heat it recieves in the boiler to net work. • The lesser the back work ratio, the better is the cycle. • Only .4% of the turbine work output is required to operate the pump. • In actual condensers, the liquid is usually subcooled to prevent cavitation. • Fluid friction causes pressure drops in the boiler, the condenser, and piping between various compunents. • The pressure in the condenser is usually very small. • The major source of irreversibility is the heat loss from the steam to the surroundings.

Rankine cycle statements
• To compensate pressure drops in Rankine cycle, the water must be pumped to a sufficient higher pressure than the ideal cycle. • To increase the thermal efficiency of rankine cycle, increase the average temperature at which heat is transferred to the working fluid in the boiler. • To increase the thermal efficiency of rankine cycle, decrease the average temperature at which heat is rejected from the working fluid in the condenser. • Lowering the operating pressure of the condenser automatically lowers the temperature of the steam, and thus the temperature at which heat is rejected.

Rankine cycle statements
• The overall effect of lowering the condenser pressure is an increase in the efficiency of rankine cycle. • To take advantage of the increased efficiencies at low pressure, the condenser of steam power plants usually operate well below the atmospheric pressure. • The average temperature at which heat is added to the steam can be increased without increasing the boiler pressure by superheating the steam to high temperature. • Superheating the steam to higher temperatures decrease the moisture content of the steam at the turbine exit.

Rankine cycle statements
• Presently the highest steam temperature allowed at the turbine inlet is about 620⁰C. • Raises the average temperature at which heat is added to the steam raises the thermal efficiency of the cycle. • The average temperature during the reheat process can be increased by increasing the number of expansion and reheat stages. • As the number of stages is increased, the expansion and reheat process approached an isothermal process at the maximum temperature. • In a reheat cycle, the optimum reheat pressure is about ¼ of the maximum cycle.

Rankine cycle statements
• The main purpose of reheating is to reduce the moisture content of the steam at the final stage expansion. • Regeneration also provides a convenient means of dearating the feedwater to prevent corrosion in the boiler. • The cycle efficiency increases further as the number of feedwater heaters is increased. • A trap allows the liquid to be throttled to a lower pressure region but traps the vapor. • A closed feedwater heater is more expansive than the open feedwater heater.

Rankine cycle statements
• Cogeneration is the production of more than one useful form of energy from the same energy source. • The overall thermal efficiency of a power plant can be increased by binary cycles or combined cycles. • A binary cycles is composed of two separate cycle, one at high temperatures and the other at relative low temperatures.

Problem solving
steam is generated at 4.1 MPa and 440⁰C and condensation occurs at .105 MPa. (a) For a Rankine cycle operating between these limits, compute the thermal efficiency and the heat rate. (b) Considering that a Rankine cycle occurs between the same limits, determine Q

Steam power plant design