The word RETAIL is in fact derived from the french word RETAILLIER which means to cut off a piece (or) to break bulk.


Retailing can hence be considered as the last stage in the movement of goods (or) services to the consumer. Put simply any firm that sells products to the final consumer is performing the function of retailing. It thus consist of all activities involved in the marketing of goods and services directly to the consumers for their personal, family (or) household use.

A retailer may be defined as a DEALER (or) TRADER who sells goods in small quantities (or) one who repeats (or) relates. An organization , dealer (or) trader that purchases products for the purpose of retailing (or) reselling them to ultimate consumers.

 Retailing

is arrived at the actual (or) ultimate consumers.  Retailing involves selling for personal consumption


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Speciality store. Department store. Super markets. Convenience stores. Discount stores. Off price retailers. catalogue show rooms.



Malls: The largest form of organized retailing today. Located mainly in metro cities, in proximity to urban outskirts. Ranges from 60,000 sq ft to 7,00,000 sq ft and above. They lend an ideal shopping experience with an amalgamation of product, service and entertainment, all under a common roof.Examples include Shoppers Stop, Piramyd, Pantaloon. Specialty Stores: Chains such as the Bangalore based Kids Kemp, the Mumbai books retailer Crossword, RPG's Music World and the Times Group's music chain Planet M, are focusing on specific market segments and have established themselves strongly in their sectors.

Department Stores: Departmental Stores are expected to take over the apparel business from exclusive brand showrooms. Among these, the biggest success is K Raheja's Shoppers Stop, which started in Mumbai and now has more than seven large stores (over 30,000 sq. ft) across India and even has its own in store brand for clothes called Stop!.

Hypermarts/Supermarkets: Large self service outlets, catering to varied shopper needs are termed as Supermarkets. These are located in or near residential high streets. These stores today contribute to 30% of all food & grocery organized retail sales. Super Markets can further be classified in to mini supermarkets typically 1,000 sq ft to 2,000 sq ft and large supermarkets ranging from of 3,500 sq ft to 5,000 sq ft. having a strong focus on food & grocery and personal sales.

Discount Stores: As the name suggests, discount stores or factory outlets, offer discounts on the MRP through selling in bulk reaching economies of scale or excess stock left over at the season. The product category can range from a variety of perishable/ non perishable goods

Convenience Stores: These are relatively small stores 400-2,000 sq. feet located near residential areas. They stock a limited range of high-turnover convenience products and are usually open for extended periods during the day, seven days a week. Prices are slightly higher due to the convenience premium.

Department Stores: Large stores ranging from 20000-50000 sq. ft, catering to a variety of consumer needs. Further classified into localized departments such as clothing, toys, home, groceries, etc.

MBO’s : Multi Brand outlets, also known as Category Killers, offer several brands across a single product category. These usually do well in busy market places and Metros.





Retail is a significant contribution to the over all economic activity. The world over the total share in the world GDP is 27%, while in the U.S.A for 22% of the GDP. According to the U.S. Dept. of labour, about 22 million AMERICANS are employed in the retailing industry in more than 2MILLION retail stores .”that is one out of every 5 workers employed”.

 1.WAL

MART u.s.a 1383000 employees.  2.TESCO u.k 171794 employees.  3.CARREFOUR france 382821 employees.  4.HOMEDEPOT u.s.a 256300 employees.  5.KROGER u.s.a 288000 employees.




Industry Evolution

Traditionally retailing in India can be traced to

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Era of government support for rural retail: Indigenous franchise model of store chains run by Khadi & Village Industries Commission 1980s experienced slow change as India began to open up economy. Textiles sector with companies like Bombay Dyeing, Raymond's, S Kumar's and Grasim first saw the emergence of retail chains Later Titan successfully created an organized retailing concept and established a series of showrooms for its premium watches The latter half of the 1990s saw a fresh wave of entrants with a shift from Manufactures to Pure Retailers. For e.g. Food World, Subhiksha and Nilgiris in food and FMCG; Planet M and Music World in music; Crossword and Fountainhead in books. Post 1995 onwards saw an emergence of shopping centers, – mainly in urban areas, with facilities like car parking – targeted to provide a complete destination experience for all segments of society Emergence of hyper and super markets trying to provide customer with 3 V’s - Value, Variety and Volume Expanding target consumer segment: The Sachet revolution - example of reaching to the bottom of the pyramid. At year end of 2000 the size of the Indian organized retail industry is estimated at Rs. 13,000 crore

The emergence of the neighborhood ‘Kirana’ stores catering to the convenience of the consumers

* India is 2nd fastest growing economy in the world. * More English speaking people. * 2nd most attracting developing market, head of china. * AT Kearney has estimated India's total retail market at US $ 202.6 billion which is expected to grow at a compounded 30% over the next five years.

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Shoppers' Stop (k.raheja)1991. Westside (Trent) (tata)1998. Pantaloon (Big Bazaar) (future group)1997. Lifestyle (land mark group) RPG Retail (Foodworld, Musicworld) (rpg enterprises) Crossword (shopper’sstop)1992. Wills Lifestyle (itc) Globus (rajan raheja group)1998. Piramals ( Pyramid & Crosswords) 1999. Ebony Retail Holdings Ltd. 1994.


Retailing formats in India
India’s number of Domestic grocery chains and Early Foreign Entrants


Recent Trends
Retail Sales in India

Retailing in India is witnessing a huge revamping exercise as can be seen in the graph India is rated the fifth most attractive emerging retail market: a potential goldmine. Estimated to be US$ 200 billion, of which organized retailing (i.e. modern trade) makes up 3 percent or US$ 6.4 billion As per a report by KPMG the annual growth of department stores is estimated at 24% Ranked second in a Global Retail Development Index of 30 developing countries drawn up by AT Kearney.


Major Retailers
Leading Retailers

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India’s top retailers are largely lifestyle, clothing and apparel stores This is followed by grocery stores Following the past trends and business models in the west retail giants such as Pantaloon, Shoppers’ Stop and Lifestyle are likely to target metros and small cities almost doubling their current number of stores These Walmart wannabes have the economy of scale to be low –medium cost retailers pocketing narrow margin



IMPACTS: The job opportunities are high in retail industry. The customers enjoy and experience the shopping. The good quality products with lower cost because of no intermediaries.



The local vendors (or) street vendors are very much affected.


The competition from the unorganized sector is formidable. Change in consumer behavior, intensification of competion with the emergence of new players & rapid technological advances have made it difficult to achieve success in the retail industry. Unorganized retails enjoy higher margin due to low operational cost, Taxations, logistics, lack of trained workforce,etc.,


India vs. World
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Indian retail is fragmented with over 12 million outlets operating in the country. This is in comparison to 0.9 million outlets in USA, catering to more than 13 times of the total retail market size as compared to India India has the highest number of outlets per capita in the world - widely spread retail network but with the lowest per capita retail space (@ 2 sq. ft. per person) Annual turnover of Wal-Mart (Sales in 2001 were $219 billion) is higher than the size of Indian retail industry. Almost 100 times more than the turnover of HLL (India's largest FMCG company). Wal-Mart - over 4,800 stores (over 47 million square meters) where as none of India's large format store (Shoppers' Stop, Westside, Lifestyle) can compare. The sales per hour of $22 million are incomparable to any retailer in the world. Number of employees in Wal-Mart are about 1.3 million where as the entire Indian retail industry employs about three million people. One-day sales record at Wal-Mart (11/23/01) $1.25 billion - roughly two third of HLL's annual turnover. Developed economies like the U.S. employ between 10 and 11 percent of their workforce in retailing (against 7 percent employed in India today). 60% of retailers in India feel that the multiple format approach will be successful here whereas in US 34 of the fastest-growing 50 retailers have just one format Inventory turns ratio: measures efficiency of operations. The U.S. retail sector has an average inventory turns ratio of about 18. Many Indian retailers KPMG surveyed have inventory turns levels between 4 and 10. Global best-practice retailers can achieve more than 95 percent availability of all SKUs on the retail shelves (translating into a stock-out level of less than 5 %).The stock-out levels among Indian retailers surveyed ranged from 5 to 15 percent.


Future direction: Positives
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AT Kearney has estimated India’s total retail market at US$ 202.6 billion which is expected to grow at a compounded 30 per cent over the next five years. With the organised retail segment growing at the rate of 25-30 per cent per annum, revenues from the sector are expected to triple from the current US$ 7.7 billion to US$ 24 billion by 2010. The share of modern retail is likely to grow from its current 2 per cent to 15-20 percent over the next decade Over next two years India will see several Indian retail businesses attaining a critical mass as growth in the industry picks up momentum driven by two key factors: – Availability of quality real estate and mall management practices – Consumer preference for shopping in new environments Wal-Mart : huge plans for India. Moving a senior official from its headquarters in Bentonville, Arkansas, to head its market research and business development functions pertaining to its retail plans in India. New York-based high-end fashion retailer Saks Fifth Avenue has tied up with realty major DLF Properties to set up shop in a mall in New Delhi. Tommy Hilfiger, retailer of apparels, expects to open one store each in Delhi, Ahmedabad, Lucknow and Bangalore in the next four months.


Future direction: Concerns
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68 million square feet of mall space is expected to be available by end of 2007, which might lead to over-capacity of malls Lack of differentiation among the malls that are coming up. One option may be to look at specialization. Poor inventory turns and stock availability measures - retailers clearly need to augment their operations. Operations of retailers and suppliers are not integrated. Efficient replenishment practices practiced in the Indian auto and auto-component industry can be leveraged to implement efficient supply chain management techniques. Supplier maturity, in terms of adherence to delivery schedules and delivering the quantity ordered, is an issue Sales tax laws - lead to retailers having state-level procurement and storage leads to Indian retailers having higher inventories. VAT has helped alleviate this a bit. Increased adoption of IT and shrinkage management will be a critical area. Supply chain and customer relations followed by merchandising, facilities management and vendor development are areas which have significant gaps and proactive training is a key imperative for overcoming these.



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