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Directing is considered to be one of the essential functions of management and a manager‟s vital outcome. It deals with the process of guiding, motivating, leading and supervising the subordinates in order to achieve the organisational goals.
Direction may be defined as “A managerial function that is related with instructing , guiding and inspiring the human factor in the organisation to achieve organisation objectives. According to Dale Directing Means “ Telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability.”
FEATURES OF DIRECTING
It is a human Activity : directing involves guiding and inspiring the human resources in the organisation hence it is a human activity. It is one of the vital managerial function without which the organisation cannot survive. Directing is pervasive ( spread throughout ) because it is to be performed at each and every level of the organisation. Directing is a continuous process because it deals with the continuous guidance to be provided by the superiors to their subordinates. Directing always follows a top down approach i.e. directing is initiated at the top level of the organisation and slowly down upto the down most level of the organisational hierarchy. Directing always aims towards performance because it guides action and action lead to the outcome. Directing provides linkage between other managerial functions such as planning, organizing and staffing.
MOTIVATION Motivation has its origin from the latin word movere which means “to move”. Another related term to motivation is motive. which may be defined as “ Any cause. incentive.” Berelson and Steiner 3 5/16/2013 . activates. or moves and directs or channels behavior goals. purpose or intention that causes a person to act” “ A process that starts with a physiological or psychological deficiencies or need that activates a behavior or a drive that is aimed at a goal or incentive” “ A motive is an inner state that energizes.
A person feels the lack of certain needs. The emotions or desires of a person prompt him for doing a particular work.NATURE OF MOTIVATION Motivation is a Physiological phenomena which generates within an individual. to satisfy which he feels working more. The need satisfying ego motivates a person to do better than he normally does. There are dormant (lying inactive ) energies in a person which are activated by channelising them into actions. 4 5/16/2013 . There are unsatisfied needs of a person which disturb his equilibrium. Motivation is an inner feeling which energizes a person to work more. A person moves to fulfill his unsatisfied needs by conditioning his energies.
Etc. The workers are offered incentives for achieving the desired goals. NEGATIVE MOTIVATION :.Types of Motivation POSITIVE MOTIVATON :. The incentives may be in the shape of more pay. promotion. recognition of work. In case they do not act accordingly then they may be punished with demotion or layoffs ( temporary discharge of work). Fear causes employees to act in a certain way.Positive motivation or incentive motivation is based on reward. 5 5/16/2013 .Negative motivation or fear motivation is based on force or fear.
IMPORTANCE OF MOTIVATION HIGH PERFORMANCE LOW EMPLOYEE TURNOVER AND ABSENTEEISM BETTER ORGANISATIONAL IMAGE BETTER INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS ACCEPTABILITY TO CHANGE 5/16/2013 6 .
Thus.‟ 7 5/16/2013 . It involves a systematic and continuous process of telling. Louis A. letters or messages. communication means sharing of ideas in common. listening and understanding. Allen defines communication as.” Fred G. Meyer says.COMMUNICATION The word communication has been derived from the Latin word „communis‟ which means „common‟. “ Communication is the sum of all the things one person does when he wants to create understanding in the mind of another. “Communication is the intercourse by word. an idea or an attitude. “ when we communicate”. It is an act of making one‟s ideas and opinions known to others. That is we are trying to share information. intercourse of thoughts or opinions. “We are trying to establish a „commonness‟ with someone. It is a bridge of meaning. says Wilbur Schramn.
The media by which the information and understanding are passed from the sender to the receiver.The subject matter of communication . the content of the letter .The sender . on the communicatee i. Communication Channel :.The receiver for whom the communication is meant. idea. 3. 2.e. He receives the information. successful . Communicatee :. order or message. speaker. information.ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION 1. 5. Response or Feedback :.The effect . speech . order. 4. Message :. or writer who intends to convey or transmit a message. 8 5/16/2013 .. Communicator :. issuer. no communication or miscommunication. or suggestion.e. reply or reaction of the information transmitted. It serves as a link between the communicator and the communicatee.i.
telephone. there is no communication.THE PROCESS OF COMMUNICATION The communicator first of all. Finally . The message is conveyed with the help of the media selected.g. The idea is then translated by him into words( spoken or written ) . He tries to understand it by decoding the message. In case. If the communication brings in the desired changes in the actions or behavior of the receiver. there is no change in the actions or behavior . the effectiveness of communication is measured through feedback. it is said to be successful communication. e. The message is then received by the communicatee. 9 5/16/2013 . formulates a clear idea about the facts. opinions or information he wants to convey. symbols or some other form of message which he expects the receiver to understand. or television. telegraph. The communicator selects a suitable media for the transmission of the message. The communicatee acts upon the message as he has understood it. and if it leads to undesirable changes it is a case of miscommunication. This process is known as encoding of the message.
Effective Control. Increases Managerial Efficiency. Public Relations.IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION Basis of decision – making and planning. 5/16/2013 10 . Job Satisfaction. Facilitates Co-ordination. Increases Productivity and Reduces Cost. Helps in Establishing Effective Leadership. Smooth and Efficient working of an organisation. Promotes Co-operation and Industrial Peace. Motivation and Morale. Democratic Management. Increases Managerial Capacity.
LEADERSHIP Koontz & O‟Donnell “Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce subordinates to work with confidence and zeal.” “ The ability of an individual to influence. motivate.” 11 5/16/2013 . and enables others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members.
Leadership is the function of stimulating the followers to strive willingly to attain organisational objectives.NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP Leadership is a personal quality. Leadership is neither bossism nor synonymous with 5/16/2013 12 management. Leadership styles do change under different circumstances. A leader must be able to influence the behavior . If there are no followers. It involves readiness to accept complete responsibility in all situations. It exists only for the realisation of common goals. . It exists only with followers. there is no leadership ? It is the willingness of people to follow that makes person a leader. attitude and beliefs of his subordinates. Leadership is a process of influence.
also known as authoritarian style of leadership implies yielding absolute power. are taken by the leader and subordinates are forced to obey them without questioning.An autocratic. All decisions . Under this style. major or small. No suggestions or initiative from subordinates is entertained. the leader expects complete obedience from his subordinates and all decision making is centralised in the leader. There is no participation by subordinates in decision making process. 13 5/16/2013 .LEADERSHIP STYLES OR TYPES OF LEADERS Autocratic or Authoritarian Style Leader :.
They are given free hand in deciding their own policies and methods and take their own decisions. The leader provides help only when required by his subordinates otherwise he does not interfere in their work . maximum freedom is allowed to subordinates. 14 5/16/2013 . This type of leadership creates self-confidence in the subordinates and provides them an opportunity to develop their talent.Laissez-Fare or Free –Rain Style Leader Under this type of leadership.
15 5/16/2013 . the leader acts according to the mutual consent and the decisions are reached after consulting the subordinates. It provides necessary motivation to the workers by ensuring their participation and acceptance of work methods.Democratic or Participative Style Leader Under this style . Subordinates are encouraged to make suggestions and take initiative. Mutual trust and confidence is also created resulting in Job satisfaction and improved morale of workers.
No deviation of set of principles is allowed under all situations. All decisions are taken on the basis of rules and regulations. The leader sets up a procedure for adhering to the rule book. Over dependence on rules and procedures bring red tapism (excessive formalities) in the working. and procedures. regulations. The employees are not encouraged to take initiatives.Bureaucratic or Rule-Centerd Leadership It is a type of leadership where everything is influenced by rules. 16 5/16/2013 .
17 5/16/2013 .Manipulative Leadership Style Under this style the leader tries to achieve organisational goals by exploiting the weak points of employees. The need and aspirations of employees are used as tools for achieving organisational objectives. The employees are exploited through different means for extracting more and more work from them and not compensating them for their additional efforts.
He helps. A Paternalistic leader is like a father figure to the subordinates. guides and protects all of his subordinates but they do not grow under him.Paternalistic Style Leader This style of leadership is based upon the sentiments and emotions of people. 18 5/16/2013 . The subordinates becomes dependent on the leader. The leader looks after the needs and aspirations of subordinates and also helps their families.
guide and direct his subordinates in satisfying their needs and aspirations. 19 5/16/2013 . Informal leaders are created to satisfy those needs which are not satisfied by the formal leaders. They derive authority from the people who are under their influence.e.Formal and Informal Leaders A formal leader is one who is formally appointed or elected to direct and control the activities of the subordinates . i. enjoys organisational authority and is accountable to those who have elected him in a formal way. In any organisation we can always find some persons who command respect and who are approched to help. he has to fulfill the demands of the organisation. On the one hand .He is a person created by the formal structure . while on the other he is also supposed to help. Informal Leader are not formally recognised. to help their followers in achieving their individual and group goals. An organisation can make effective use of informal leaders to strengthen the formal leadership. Guide and protect the informal leaders have only one task to perform. The formal leader has a twofold responsibility.
THANKS 5/16/2013 20 .