Introduction to Validity

What is Validity?
q

q

The best available approximation to the truth or falsity of a given inference, proposition, or conclusion A set of standards by which research can be judged

The Causal Context
Theory

Observation

The Causal Context
Theory Cause construct

Observation

The Causal Context
Theory Cause construct

Observation

The Causal Context
Theory Cause construct
cause-effect construct

Effect construct

Observation

The Causal Context
Theory Cause construct
What you think
cause-effect construct

Effect construct

Observation

The Causal Context
Theory Cause construct
Operationalize

What you think
Cause-Effect Construct

Effect construct

Program Observation
In this study

The Causal Context
Theory Cause construct
Operationalize

What you think
Cause-effect Construct

Effect construct
Operationalize

Program Observation

Observations
In this study

The Causal Context
Theory Cause construct
Operationalize

What you think
Cause-effect Construct

Effect construct
Operationalize

Program
What you do

Observations
What you see
In this study

Observation

The Causal Context
Theory Cause construct
Operationalize

What you think
Cause-effect Construct

Effect construct
Operationalize

Program
What you do

Program-outcome Relationship

Observations
What you see
In this study

Observation

What you test

Conclusion Validity
Is there a relationship between...
q q

What you did and what you saw? Your program and your observations?

Program
What you do

Program-outcome Relationship

Observations
What you see
In this study

Observation

Internal Validity
Is the relationship causal between... • What you did and what you saw? • Your program and your observations?
Alternative cause Alternative cause

Program
What you do

Program-outcome Relationship

Observations
What you see
In this study

Observation

Alternative cause

Alternative cause

Construct Validity
Theory Cause construct
What you think
Cause-effect Construct

Effect construct

Can we generalize to the constructs? Program
What you do
Program-outcome Relationship

Observations
What you see

Observation

External Validity
Theory Cause construct
What you think
Cause-effect Construct

Effect construct

Can we generalize to other persons, places, times?
Program
What You Do
program-outcome relationship

Observations
What You See

Program
What You Do

program-outcome relationship

Observations
What You See

Observation

Observation

Program
What You Do

program-outcome relationship

Observations
What you see

Program
What You Do

program-outcome relationship

Observations
What You See

Observation

Observation

The Validity Questions Are Cumulative...

The Validity Questions Are Cumulative...

In this study

Is there a relationship between the cause and effect?

The Validity Questions Are Cumulative...

In this study Conclusion

Is the relationship causal?

Is there a relationship between the cause and effect?

The Validity Questions Are Cumulative...

In theory Internal Conclusion

Can we generalize to the constructs?

Is the relationship causal?

Is there a relationship between the cause and effect?

The Validity Questions Are Cumulative...

In theory

Can we generalize to other persons, places, times?

we generalize Construc Canconstructs? to the t Internal Is the relationship causal?

Conclusion

Is there a relationship between the cause and effect?

The Validity Questions are cumulative...
Validity

External Construct Internal Conclusion

Can we generalize to other persons, places, times?

Can we generalize to the constructs?

Is the relationship causal?

Is there a relationship between the cause and effect?

Threats to Validity
You Want to Make an Inference...
q

q q

q

There is a relationship between the cause and effect. The relationship is causal. You can generalize to the constructs. You can generalize to other persons, places, and times.

Threats to Validity
How could you be wrong in the inference? Conclusion Validity
q

q

There is a relationship, but you don’t see it. There is no relationship, but you do see one.

Threats to Validity
How could you be wrong in the inference? Internal Validity
q

q

There is a causal relationship, but you don’t see it. There is no causal relationship, but you do see one.

Threats to Validity
How could you be wrong in the inference? Construct Validity
q

q

You can generalize to constructs, but you conclude you can’t. You can’t generalize to constructs, but you conclude you can.

Threats to Validity
How could you be wrong in the inference? External Validity
q

q

You can generalize to other contexts, but you conclude you can’t You can’t generalize to contexts, but you conclude you can

Threats to Validity
q

q

q

q

How you can be wrong in making your inference Specific factors that can bias or distort your conclusions A list of common threats to the quality of your study A “checklist” you can use in planning your study

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful