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Leading Change

John P. Kotter
The rate of change is not going to slow Down anytime soon. If anything, competition In most industries will probably speed up Even more in the next few decades.

Leading the Change Process

Apply Science of Learning & Human Performance

Generate solution options and metrics

Translate job requirements into competencies (K, S, A, T)

Conduct effectiveness & cost analysis

Performance Consultants

Make recommendations

Creating Major Change


The 8 Stage Process of Creating Major Change

1. Establishing a Sense of Urgency


2. Creating a Guiding Coalition 3. Developing a Vision & Strategy 4. Communicating the Change Vision 5. Empowering Broad-Based Action 6. Generating Short-Term Wins 7. Consolidating Gains & Producing More Change 8. Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture
Source: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998

Creating Major Change


Establishing a Sense of Urgency
Examining the market & competitive realities Identifying & discussing crisis, potential crisis, major opportunities

Concepts:
Create a crisis: highlight major weaknesses, allow errors to compound Eliminate obvious examples of excess (company facilities, services,etc Set goals & targets unrealistically high Distribute company-wide performance data highlighting deficiencies to more employees Force interaction with unsatisfied customers, suppliers, shareholders. Use consultants to force more relevant & honest appraisals Bombard people with information on future opportunities, rewards for capitalize on those opportunities, & potential lost opportunities.

Source: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998

Creating Major Change


Creating a Guiding Coalition
Putting together a group with enough power to lead the change Getting the group to work together like a team

4 Key Characteristics of Guiding Coalition:


Positional Power: Are enough key players on board, especially the main line managers, so those left out can not easily block progress? Expertise: Are the various points of view, relevant to the tasks at hand, adequately represented so that informed, intelligent decisions can be made? Credibility: Does the group have enough people, with good reputations, that its pronoucements will be taken serious by the other employees? Leadership: Does the group include enough proven leaders to be able to drive the change process?

Source: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998

Creating Major Change


Developing a Vision & Strategy Creating a vision to help direct the change effort
Developing strategies for achieving that vision

Characteristics of an Effective Vision


Imaginable: Conveys a picture of what the future will look like Desirable: Appeals to the long-term interests of employees, customers, stakeholders. Feasible: Comprises realistic, attainable goals Focused: Is clear enough to provide guidance in decision making Flexible: Is it general enough to allow individual initiative & alternative responses in light of changing condition. Communicable: Is easy to communicate, can be successfully explained within 5 minutes.

Source: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998

Creating Major Change


Communicating the Change Vision
Using every vehicle possible to constantly communicate the new vision & strategies Having the guiding coalition role model the behavior expected of employees

Key elements in communicating the vision: Simplicity. All jargon & technobabble must be eliminated. Metaphor, Analogy & Example. A verbal picture is worth a thousand words. Multiple Forums. Big meetings & small, memos, newspapers, formal and informal meetings. Repetition. Ideas sink in only after they have been heard many times Leadership by Example. Behavior by important people that is inconsistent with the vision overwhelms other forms of communication. Explanation of Seeming Inconsistency. Unaddressed inconsistencies undermine the credibility of all communications. Give & Take. Two way communication is always more powerful and one-way communication.
Source: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998

Creating Major Change


Empowering Broad-Based Action
Getting rid of obstacles Changing systems or structures that undermine the change vision Encouraging risk taking & non-traditional ideas, activities & actions

Empowering People to Effect Change Communicate a sensible vision to employees. Make sure structures are compatible with the vision. Provide the training employees need. Align information and personnel systems to the vision. Confront supervisors who undercut needed change.

Source: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998

Creating Major Change


Generating Short-Term Wins
Planning for visible improvements in performance, or wins Creating those wins Visibly recognizing & rewarding people who made the win possible

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Provides evidence that sacrifices are worth it. Reward change agents. Helps fine-tune vision & strategies. Undermine cynics and self-serving registers. Keep bosses on board. Build Momentum.

Source: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998

Creating Major Change


Using increased credibility to change all systems, structures & policies that dont fit together and dont fit the transformation strategy Hiring, promoting, & developing people who can implement the change vision Reinvigorating the process with new projects, themes & change agents

Consolidating Gains & Producing More Change

More change, not less. The guiding coalition uses the credibility afforded by the short-term wins to tackle additional and bigger change projects More Help. Additional people are brought in, promoted and developed to help with all the changes Leadership from Senior Management. Senior people focus on maintaining clarity of shared purpose, keeping urgency levels up. People management & leadership from below. Lower ranks in the hierarchy provide both leadership & management for specific projects. Reduction of unnecessary interdependencies. To make change easier in both short/long-term, managers identify and eliminate unnecessary organizational interdependencies.

Note: Resistance is always waiting to reassert itself!


Source: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998

Creating Major Change


Creating better performance through customer- & productivity oriented behavior, more and better leadership, & more effective management Articulating the connections between new behavior & organizational success Developing means to ensure leadership development & succession

Anchoring New Approaches in the Culture

Concepts:

Culture changes come last, not first. Most alteration in norms & shared values come at the end of the transformation process Results matter. New approaches usually sink into a culture only after it is very clear that they work and are superior to the old methods. Requires a lot of talk. Without verbal instruction and support, people are reluctant to admit the validity of new practices. May involve turnover. Sometime the only way to change a culture is to change key people. Makes decision on succession crucial. If promotion processes are not changed to be compatible with the new practices, the old culture will reassert itself

Source: Leading Change, John P. Kotter, 1998