# ELECTROLYSIS

The electrolytic cell     Consisting of two electrodes immersed in an electrolyte for carrying out electrolysis A direct electric current is passed through the electrolyte from external source Anode.the electrode connected to the positive pole (Oxidation occurs at the anode) Cathode – the electrode connected to the negative pole of baterry (Reduction occur) .

ii. Selective Discharge of Ions -The cation is discharged at the cathode and the anion is discharged at the anode.Electrolysis  Factors affecting the products formed during electrolysis i. Effect of concentration on electrolysis iii. Nature of electrode and overvoltage effect .

Electrolytic cell   Electrolysis of molten sodium chloride Electrolysis of Aqueous sodium chloride .

65 x 104 Cmol -1 1 Faraday(F) is the quantity of electricity (9.Faraday‘s Laws of Electrolysis Number of coulombs (C) = Amperes (A) x Time(s)  The Faraday constant (F) is the charge on one mole of electron F=Lxe where L = Avogadro constant and e = electrical charge on one electron F = (6.02 x 10 23 )mol -1 x (1.6 x 10 -19)C = 9.65 x 10 4 C)  .

 . The time taken for the electricity to pass through the electrolyte iii. the magnitude of the electric current used ii.Faraday’s 1st Law The factors that influence the mass of a substance i. The charge on the ion Faraday’s first Law states that the mass of substance produced at an electrode during electrolysis is proportional to the quantity of electricity (in coulombs) passed.

Faraday’s 2nd Law  States that if the same quantity of electricity is passed through different electrolytes. 1/3 mole of Al3+ and ¼ mole of oxygen gas  . but ½ mole of Cu2+ ions. the mass of the substance liberated at the electrode is inversely proportional to the charges on the ions 1F of electricity will discharge 1 mole of Ag+.

Quantitative Aspects of electrolysis  Sample exercise 20.14 (pg 885) .

chromium. silver and nickel) on another metal in order to improve beauty or resistance to corrosion .Application of electrolysis  Electroplating – uses electrolysis to deposit a thin layer of one metal (eg.

Extraction of metal  Used to isolate the very reactive metals in Group 1 and 2 of Periodic Table and the metal aluminum from their ores Metal Sodium Magnesium Aluminum Source Rock salt Dolomite Bauxite Electrolyte Molten NaCl Molten MgCl2 Pure Al2O3 dissolved in molten cryolite .

from a solution containing the metal ions Eg. the anode is a piece of impure copper and the electrolyte is copper (II)sulphate solution . the purification of copper .Purification metal    Electrorefining of metal The pure metal is deposited at a cathode.the cathode is thin sheet of pure copper.

Manufacture of chemicals   Electrolysis is used to decompose ionic compound and to convert them into more useful and valuable chemicals Eg. the conversion of sea water (brine) into hydrogen. chlorine and sodium hydroxide using the diaphragm cell .

An electrolysis process is then used to deposit copper on a plastic circuit board. Copper acts as the electrical conductor The process of electroplating copper on to plastic improves the quality of microelectronic circuit boards .Electroplating plastics     The plastic must first be made electrically conducting by coating it with graphite powder.

because Al oxide forms a thin protective layer b) to produce a decorative finish because Al oxide can absorb colored dyes . The object forms the anode The electrolyte is dilute sulphuric acid Anodizing is used to a) make the Al objects even more resistant to corrosion.Anodizing    This is the process of coating aluminum objects with aluminum oxide.

Effluent treatment    The supply of drinking water comes from rivers. lakes and underground water (sometimes polluted because of industrial waste dumped by factories) The effluent contains metal ions as nickel. cadmium and chromium The main method to treat this type of effluent is by electrolysis .

15 (pg 887) .nFE Sample Exercise 20.Electrical Work W max = .