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Solid Waste Management

Chapter 5

Sources of Solid Wastes


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Residential Commercial Institutional Construction and demolitions Municipal services Treatment plant sites Industrial Agricultural

Characteristics of Solid of Wastes


1. Composition 2. Quantities 3. Specific Weight

Integrated Waste Management


IWM is the selection and application of suitable techniques, technologies and management programs to achieve waste management objectives. Strategies set by EPA for IWM: 1. Source reduction 2. Recycling and composting 3. Combustion (sate-to-energy) 4. Landfills

Source Reduction
Consumers Federal and state levels Private sectors Material design Increase durability Substitute w/less toxic material Increase product effectiveness
*****Most efficient at the product/process design phase

Recycling and Composting


Returning raw material to the market Saves precious resources Stretches landfill capacities Improves ash efficiency and quality in incinerators by removing non-combustible material Improves compost quality by removing noncompostable material (glass, plastics) Can be problematic if not handled properly
e.g. Recycling oils, solvents, etc e.g. Composting pesticide-contaminated grass clippings contaminating ground water

Combustion or Waste-to-Energy
Incineration of wastes. Reduces the volume of wastes dramatically up to nine fold (1/9th) Energy may be recovered in the form of steam or electricity Stretches landfill capacities Avoids high transportation costs to far-located landfills Disadvantages:
High cost Highly sophisticated for safe and economical operation Public skeptical about their safety

Landfill Types
1. The Trench method
Used in level terrain. Trenches are dug by excavation Solid waste is filled in the trenches & dirt is replaced on top of the buried material Trench is then compacted

2. The Area method


Most popular By locating a side of a hill or a sloped area Refused is dumped on the side of the slope and then covered with dirt It continues until the entire slope is leveled

3. The Valley or Ravine method


Commonly used by large cities In an area with large depression or slope such as a valley or ravine Usually an area naturally developed Refuse is dumped in the depression and filled with dirt

Landfill Classification
1. Class 1 landfills hazardous materials accepted 2. Class 2 landfills low level hazardous materials accepted 1. Class 3 landfills no hazardous materials accepted

State of a Landfill
A) Aerobic state: 4-60 days B) Anaerobic: after 60 days Produces methane, carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide gases as anaerobic decomposition products In a well-run landfill: Methane/carbon dioxide ratio is between 65% and 35% Hydrogen sulfide is <1% *** Landfills get inspected at least once a month.

Leachate removal and collection systems Pipes collect the leachate which settles on the top of the liner Prevent the leachate form migrated to groundwater A series of perforated collection pipes Usually 4 to 6 PVC Drainage layers Filters Header pipes Sumps and sump pumps Treatment

Engineering Controls

Engineering Controls
Leachate removal and collection systems Pipes placed over the liner in drainage layers filled with sand or gravel In landfills with double liners, pipes are located both above the top liner and between the top and bottom liners Liners are usually designed with a slope so that the leachate drains into a control collection point Typical leachate generation is 10 to 100 gallons per acre per day

Landfill Gases
Methane
Explosive and a global warming gas Can be flared

Landfilled gas is 50% carbon dioxide and 50% methane plus trace organic chemicals Anaerobic decomposition produces methane

Methane
Engineering control options
Vented Flared Recovered

Landfilled methane is equivalent to approximately 5% pf the natural gas consumption in the U.S. or approximately 1% of the total energy demand Less than 200 landfills recover energy

Health Risks
Release of potentially toxic substances
Releases of leachate to groundwater Releases of leachate to surface water Emissions of volatile gases into the atmosphere

Composting
It is the natural process of plant nutrient recycling, returning nutrients back into the soil. Plant material (grass, leaves) are broken down by bacterial decay and result in the formation of nutrients. As decay progresses, fungus, mold and protozoas enter the decomposition process. Towards the end of the decomposition, millipedes, beetles and earthworms complete the process. It reduces waste down to 20% by volume. It results in HUMUS- not a fertilizer but a soil conditioner (keeps soil oxygenated and loose for water absorption)