JIT and Lean Operations

JIT/Lean Production
• Just-in-time (JIT): A highly coordinated processing system in which goods move through the system, and services are performed, just as they are needed,
• JIT   lean production • JIT  pull (demand) system • JIT operates with very little “fat”

Achieves a smooth. rapid flow of materials through the system .Goal of JIT The ultimate goal of JIT is a balanced system.

15-4 Summary JIT Goals and Building Blocks Ultimate A Goal balanced rapid flow Supporting Goals Eliminate disruptions Make the system flexible Eliminate waste Product Design Process Design Personnel Elements Manufacturing Planning Building Blocks .

especially excess inventory .15-5 Supporting Goals • Eliminate disruptions • Make system flexible • Eliminate waste.

15-6 Sources of Waste • Overproduction • Waiting time • Unnecessary transportation • Processing waste • Inefficient work methods • Product defects .

15-7 Kaizen Philosophy • Waste is the enemy • Improvement should be done gradually and continuously • Everyone should be involved • Built on a cheap strategy • Can be applied anywhere .

15-8 Kaizen Philosophy (cont’d) • Supported by a visual system • Focuses attention where value is created • Process orienteted • Stresses main effort of improvement should come from new thinking and work style • The essence of organizational learning is to learn while doing .

Little JIT • Big JIT – broad focus • Vendor relations • Human relations • Technology management • Materials and inventory management • Little JIT – narrow focus • Scheduling materials • Scheduling services of production .15-9 Big vs.

15-10 JIT Building Blocks • Product design • Process design • Personnel/organizational elements • Manufacturing planning and control .

15-11 Product Design • Standard parts • Modular design • Highly capable production systems • Concurrent engineering .

15-12 Process Design • Small lot sizes • Setup time reduction • Manufacturing cells • Limited work in process • Quality improvement • Production flexibility • Balanced system • Little inventory storage .

15-13 Benefits of Small Lot Sizes Reduces inventory Less rework Less storage space Problems are more apparent Increases product flexibility Easier to balance operations .

15-14 Single-Minute Exchange • Single-minute exchange of die (SMED): A system for reducing changeover time • Categorize changeover activities • Internal – activities that can only be done while machine is stopped • External – activities that do not require stopping the machine .

15-15 Production Flexibility • Reduce downtime by reducing changeover time • Use preventive maintenance to reduce breakdowns • Cross-train workers to help clear bottlenecks .

Production Flexibility (cont’d) • Use many small units of capacity • Use off-line buffers 15-16 • Reserve capacity for important customers .

15-17 Quality Improvement • Autonomation • Automatic detection of defects during production • Jidoka • Japanese term for autonomation .

15-18 Production Flexibility • Balance system: Distributing the workload evenly among work stations • Work assigned to each work station must be less than or equal to the cycle time • Cycle time is set equal to the takt time • Takt time is the cycle time needed to match customer demand for final product .

15-19 Personnel/Organizational Elements • Workers as assets • Cross-trained workers • Continuous improvement • Cost accounting • Leadership/project management .

Kanban) • Push system: System for moving work where output is pushed to the next station as it is completed .15-20 Pull/Push Systems • Pull system: System for moving work where a workstation pulls output from the preceding station as needed.g. (e.

15-21 Kanban Production Control System • Kanban: Card or other device that communicates demand for work or materials from the preceding station • Kanban is the Japanese word meaning “signal” or “visible record” • Paperless production control system • Authority to pull. or produce comes from a downstream process. .

15-22 Kanban Formula N = DT(1+X) C N = Total number of containers D = Planned usage rate of using work center T = Average waiting time for replenishment of parts plus average production time for a container of parts X = Policy variable set by management .possible inefficiency in the system C = Capacity of a standard container .

12 day for a container to complete a circuit from the time a Kanban card is received until the container is returned empty.20 .Usage at each work center is 300 parts per day. and a standard container holds 25 parts. Compute the number of Kanban cards required if X = . It takes an average of .

20 N= 300 (.728 = 2 .20) / 25 = 1.N=? D = 300 parts per day T = .12)(1+.12 day C = 25 parts per container X = .

15-25 .