Chapter 11 Case Study 2: Windows 2000

11.1 History of windows 2000 11.2 Programming windows 2000 11.3 System structure 11.4 Processes and threads in windows 2000 11.5 Memory management 11.6 Input/output in windows 2000 11.7 The windows 2000 file system 11.8 Security in windows 2000 11.9 Caching in windows 2000
1

Windows NT

Some differences between Windows 98 and Windows NT
2

Windows 2000 (1)

Different versions of Windows 2000
3

Windows 2000 (2)

Comparison of some operating system sizes
4

The Win32 Application Programming Interface

The Win32 API allows programs to run on almost all versions of Windows

5

The Registry (1)

• Top level keys and selected subkeys • Capitalization has no meaning but follows Microsoft practice.

6

The Registry (2)

Some of the Win32 API calls for using the registry

7

The Operating System Structure

• • • •

Structure of Windows 2000 (slightly simplified). Shaded area is executed Boxes, D, are device drivers Service processes are system daemons

8

Hardware Abstraction Layer

Some of the hardware functions the HAL manages
9

Implementation of Objects (1)

The structure of an object
10

Implementation of Objects (2)

Some common executive object types managed by the object manager

11

Implementation of Objects (3)

The relationship between handle tables, objects and type objects

12

The Object Name Space

Some typical directories in the object name space
13

Environment Subsystems (1)

Various routes taken to implement Win32 API function calls

14

Environmental Subsystems (2)

• Some key windows 2000 files
– mode they run in – number of exported function calls – main contents of each file

• Calls in win32k.sys not formally exported
– not called directly
15

Processes and Threads (1)

Basic concepts used for CPU and resource management
16

Processes and Threads (2)

Relationship between jobs, processes, threads, and fibers
17

Job, Process, Thread & Fiber Mgmt. API Calls

Some of Win32 calls for managing processes, threads and fibers

18

Scheduling (1)

Mapping of Win32 priorities to Windows 2000 priorities
19

Scheduling (2)

Windows 2000 supports 32 priorities for threads

20

Scheduling (3)

An example of priority inversion
21

MS-DOS Emulation

How old MS-DOS programs are run under Windows 2000
22

Booting Windows 2000

• Processes starting up during boot phase • Those above the line are always started • Those below are examples of services which could be started
23

Fundamental Concepts (1)

• Virtual address space layout for 3 user processes • White areas are private per process • Shaded areas are shared among all processes

24

Fundamental Concepts (2)

• Mapped regions with their shadow pages on disk • The lib.dll file is mapped into two address spaces at same time

25

Memory Management System Calls

The principal Win32 API functions for mapping virtual memory in Windows 2000
26

Implementation of Memory Management

A page table entry for a mapped page on the Pentium
27

Physical Memory Management (1)

The various page lists and the transitions between them
28

Physical Memory Management (2)

Some of the major fields in the page frame data base for a valid page29

Input/Output API Calls

Categories of Win32 API calls
30

Device Drivers

Windows 2000 allows drivers to be stacked

31

File System API Calls in Windows 2000 (1)

• Principle Win32 API functions for file I/O • Second column gives nearest UNIX equivalent
32

File System API Calls in Windows 2000 (2)

A program fragment for copying a file using the Windows 2000 API functions
33

File System API Calls in Windows 2000 (3)

• Principle Win32 API functions for directory management • Second column gives nearest UNIX equivalent, when one exists
34

File System Structure (1)

The NTFS master file table

35

File System Structure (2)

The attributes used in MFT records

36

File System Structure (3)

An MFT record for a three-run, nine-block file
37

File System Structure (4)

A file that requires three MFT records to store its runs
38

File System Structure (5)

The MFT record for a small directory.
39

File Name Lookup

Steps in looking up the file C:mariaweb.htm
40

File Compression

(a) An example of a 48-block file being compressed to 32 blocks (b) The MTF record for the file after compression
41

File Encryption
K retrieved

user's public key

Operation of the encrypting file system
42

Security in Windows 2000

Structure of an access token
43

Security API Calls (1)

Example security descriptor for a file

44

Security API Calls (2)

Principal Win32 API functions for security
45

Caching in Windows 2000

The path through the cache to the hardware

46

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