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# MATHEMATICS TEACHING METHODS AND TECHNIQUES

PRACTICAL WORK
A type of activity with its aim to obtain the final result directly from the work done. Used to train pupils to use teaching aids to learn mathematical concepts or facts. Can also be used to master skill in solving mathematics problem.

## Examples of Mathematics Activities

Guide pupils to cut/fold papers into several equal parts to learn the concept of fraction Guide pupils to divide a rectangle into several equal squares to learn the concept of area Use measuring instruments to master the skill and concept of length, weight and volume of liquid

## Examples of Mathematics Activities

Use concrete objects such as marbles, rubber seeds or abacus to master the skill of counting or certain operations. Make geometrical models such as cuboid, cube and others to master the characteristics of solid geometry.

## Advantages of Practical Work Method:

Would give confidence to the pupils Easier to understand and remember concepts/skills through their own practical experience Through maths games, able to acquire their psychomotor manipulating skills.

EXPOSITORY METHOD
Expository can be referred as explicit and comprehensive explanation of certain facts. A way of presentation of information to pupils directly in the classroom.

## Uses and Benefits:

To present information especially when time is limited To give directions To wrap up an activity

Problems and Concerns Verbal learning tends to be passive Organized according to teachers idea may not be the same with students, especially with culturally diverse group of students. What is said is not always what is heard. Limited by the learners attention span. Difficult for small children to follow need concrete materials.

Laboratory Method:
May be defined as learning by doing Often involves children playing and manipulating concrete objects in structured situations. Teacher plan systematic procedure, prepare sufficient equipments, organize group activities to ensure the effectiveness of this method.

Examples of activities:
To study the characteristics of geometrical block by measuring the length of its sides To study mathematics patterns, relationships by using sets of objects To derive formula for the area of rectangle To understand relationships between units of measurement by using measuring devices.

DEMONSTRATION
Teacher shows the way or steps to perform a certain activity in the class. There are two types of demonstrations:
Traditional : teacher stands before the group, shows something, and then tells what happened Discovery : teacher silently conducts and learners attempt to determine why what is shown occurs.

Tips to be applied:
Practice, practice and practice try out first, to be sure you know that it will work out fine. Take precautions anticipate potential accidents/problems. Make everything visible elevate demonstration materials as high as is practical and safe.

Uses and Benefits To protect learners when danger is involved To show how to use something To begin or end a unit of study To control time when the action needs to be stopped periodically to show important changes or to point out specific elements.

Uses and Benefits To illustrate an important concept when there is not enough equipment and substitutions cannot be made To develop problem solving skills To grab learners attention before introducing a concept or unit To actively, mentally engage learners in learning.

Problems and Concerns: Demonstrations dont always work Learners may become restless and inattentive Learners may have difficulty seeing the demonstration The group may ask questions, therefore the teacher must really know precisely what happened and why.