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Sustainable Leadership, Coaching and Emotional Intelligence

Presentation to Federal Consulting Group

Washington, D.C. November 17, 2006

John Lazar, MA, MCC, NCOC


Learning Objectives
By end of session, you will be able to: Identify key factors that enable the development of sustainable leadership. State the role that coaching plays in contributing to sustainable leadership. State the relationship between emotional intelligence (EI) and sustainable leadership. Identify at least one next step you can take to further sustainable leadership.

Part 1 Model for Sustainable Leadership

Factors to Consider

Changing environments will demand new and changing organizational structures (ways of organizing) and new ways of leading. Leaders may resist new ways of organizing because:

Previous success Perceived importance of own part of the business (silos) Difficulty with new organizational complexity Effort to develop teams Diversity of workforce and values

The Consultants View

the success of the organizational changes is dependent on leadership. As difficult as organizational change can be, leadership change is exponentially more challenging. Leadership often is the slowest to change in response to environmental and organizational demands.
Source: Weiss & Molinaro (2005, p. 11)

Sustainable Leadership

Called leadership capacity by Weiss & Molinaro. Defined as the extent to which organizations can optimize their current and future leadership to drive business results and successfully meet the challenges and opportunities of an everchanging business environment.

Source: Weiss & Molinaro (2005, p. 5)

The Leadership Gap

If gap isnt closed, organizations may jeopardize their competitive ability. Conference Board (U.S.) research: Percentage of senior leaders who believe their organizations have serious leadership gap increased from 50% to 67% from 1997 to 2001. Conference Board (Canada) research: 70% of Canadian CEOs identified leadership as top business concern.

Source: reported in Weiss & Molinaro (2005, pp. 13-15)

Just Over the Horizon

According to RHR Consultancy, among the 500 largest U.S. companies, they will lose 50% of their senior managers in next five years. The rate will be even higher among the most senior managers in civil service.

Source: reported in The Economist (2006, October 7, p. 4)

Leadership Challenge is Already Here

Up to 70% of CEOs surveyed see their own organizations leaders as being fair or weak in ability to build teams, gain employment commitment, make employees feel valued. Employees doubt extent to which senior management has their best interests at heart (as expressed by their accessibility, visibility and inspirational leadership) or communicates openly about important business issues

Sources: reported in Weiss & Molinaro (2005, p. 19); Towers Perrin HR Services (2006)

Leadership Gap Defined by Four Aspects


Availability Insufficient Fragmented Generation differences




Source: Weiss & Molinaro (2005, chapter 2)

Sustainable Leadership: Leader and Organizational Accountability

Leaders accountability for development of their competencies Organizational accountability (through HR as agent) for integrating systems, processes, programs, etc.

Embed leadership through organization Focus on critical positions & key talent Integrate leadership development

Source: Weiss & Molinaro (2005, chapters 10-14)

Two Leadership Models 1. CCL Leadership Competencies

Three competency clusters

Leading the organization Leading others Leading oneself

Leadership Competencies, the CCL Way (1 of 3)

Leading the Organization

Managing change Solving problems and making decisions Managing politics and influencing others Taking risks and innovating Setting vision and strategy Enhancing business skills and knowledge Understanding and navigating the organization

Source: CCL website,

Leadership Competencies, the CCL Way (2 of 3)

Leading Others

Managing effective teams and workgroups Building and maintaining relationships Developing others Communicating effectively

Source: CCL website,

Leadership Competencies, the CCL Way (3 of 3)

Leading Oneself

Developing adaptability Increasing self-awareness Managing yourself Increasing capacity to learn Exhibiting leadership stature Displaying drive and purpose Developing ethics and integrity

Source: CCL website,

Two Leadership Models 2. Holistic Leadership

Business strategy Culture and values Customer leadership Organizational leadership Team leadership Personal leadership

Source: Weiss & Molinaro (2005, chapters 3-9)

Organizational Accountability Embed Leadership

Embedded leadership process to ensure that sustainable leadership is seen and becomes integral part of fabric of organization Foundational strategies

Ensure secure supply of talent Develop compelling leadership stories Anchor to well-developed organizational process

Source: Weiss & Molinaro (2005, chapter 11)

Organizational Accountability Focus on the Critical

Succession management to address

Critical positions Vulnerable incumbents and potential candidates Development plans Retention Onboarding Expatriation and repatriation integration

Talent management strategies for

Sources: Weiss & Molinaro (2005, chapter 12); Charan, Drotter, & Noel (2001); Watkins (2003)

Organizational Accountability Integrate Leadership Development

Leadership development options

Assessment Coaching and mentoring Learning Experience

Implement integrated-solution approach

Source: Weiss & Molinaro (2005, chapter 13)

Part 2 The Coaching Contribution

Coaching and its Focus

Coaching is an informed dialogue whose purpose is the facilitation of new skills, possibilities, and insights in the interest of individual learning and organizational advancement. Coaching may focus on:

Behavior Decision-making Fundamental beliefs, values and purposes Overall business performance

Sources: Bacon and Spear (2003, p. xvi); Pomerantz and Bergquist (2005)

Forces That Shape Us on Our Journey

Forces that Shape Us: Our Degree of Personal Control Genetics Experiences None Some

Actions, including our -Beliefs -Interpretations -Choices -Moods -Behaviors

Source: Adapted from Lazar (2006a)


A Personal Model for Learning & Development Where to Focus?

Observer Identity and Context Results (including Errors) Actions

Small, Incremental Change/Improvement

Large, Discontinuous Change/Improvement

Sources: Adapted from Hargrove (1995, p. 28); Sieler (2003)

Coaching Distinctions

Non-judgmental listening is the key. Theres value when another person is a stand for you to be your word. Theres leverage when one can distinguish experience from explanation. Coaching unconceals our blind spots and makes choice possible. Moods are contagious. Noticing them is essential. Being able to shift them is a precondition for personal power. Humor (especially not taking oneself too seriously) lightens the mood and enables learning.

Source: Lazar (2005)

Where Coaching Fits with Types of Root Causes

TYPES OF CAUSES: Absence of or insufficient



Incentives or improper incentives

Environmental support


Additional or fewer responsibilities Role or goal clarification Motivational feedback Values clarification Coaching Task variation

Process, output or outcome feedback or evaluation Reward Praise Punishment Contingency management Removal of reinforcement

Simplify work

Job aids Modeling Documentation Coaching Mentoring

Change process Improve tools/equipment Change policy Change work conditions Replace performer

Source: Adapted from Lazar (1991)

Coaching Challenges Can Occur at Three Levels

Individual performer Department/Unit/Program Organization-wide

Source: Adapted from Bergquist (2004)

Where Coaching Contributes

If Role is

Then Coaching can be used to

Increase self-awareness, self-management & others-related awareness S/K Develop interpersonal & communications S/K Sustain learning of technical and functional S/K. Above plus Development of effective management practices.


Directors; Above plus Project Mgrs. Effective project management practices. C-level; Vice Presidents; General Managers
Source: Lazar (2006c)

Above plus Increase ability to manage and lead change Shift old habitsthen develop new habits & S/K Provide reflection and thought partnership.

An Opinion About the Value of Coaching

Coaching is the single most important part of expanding others capabilities (Coaching) is the difference between giving orders and teaching people how to get things done. Good leaders regard every encounter as an opportunity to coach.
Source: Bossidy and Charan (2002, p. 74)

Part 3 EI and Leadership

Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Emotional Competence (EC)

Different definitions

EI underlying capability to recognize and use emotion EC personal and social skills that lead to superior performance in work world Personality theory Performance theory Combination of above, plus more

Different theoretical bases

Source: Gowing (2001)

Different Assessment Methods for EI and EC

MEIS (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey) MSCEIT (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey) EQ-I (Bar-On) ECI (Goleman & Boyatzis) EQ Map (Cooper & Orioli)

Source: Gowing (2001, p. 129)

Emotional Intelligence The Conceptual Model

Self Recognition



Social Awareness



Relationship Management
Positive impact on others

2000 Hay Group. All rights reserved.

Emotional Intelligence Competencies Framework


Social Awareness

Emotional self-awareness Accurate self-assessment Self-confidence

Empathy Organizational awareness Service


Self-control Transparency Adaptability Achievement Initiative Optimism

Relationship Management

Influence Inspirational leadership Developing others Change catalyst Conflict management Teamwork and collaboration

2000 Hay Group. All rights reserved.

About Competencies & ECI

(1 of 2)

Definition: Any measurable characteristic of a person

that differentiates level of performance in a given job, role, organization, or culture. A competency builds upon ones:

Skills Knowledge Values Self-Image Traits Motives

2000, HayGroup. Reprinted with permission.

About Competencies & ECI

(2 of 2)

Competencies consist of behaviors that are developmentally scaled (from easy to difficult). For each competency, there is a target level of behavior that, when met or exceeded, positively and differentially impacts performance.

2000, HayGroup. Reprinted with permission.

Example of Scaled Competency

Degree of Difficulty

4. Develops behind the scenes support 3. Uses indirect influence Anticipates impact of actions or words Level 2. Anticipates impact of actions or words 1. Engages audience Competency levels increase by degree of difficulty.

2000, HayGroup. Reprinted with permission.

The ECI Priorities

E Self-Awareness
Self-Confidence Emotional Self-Awareness or Accurate Self-Assessment

Social Awareness
Empathy Organizational Awareness or Service Orientation

E Self-Management
Self-Control Transparency or Adaptability Achievement or Initiative Optimism

Managing Relationships
Influence Inspirational Leadership or Developing Others Teamwork and Collaboration or Conflict Management Change Catalyst

Source: Jacobs (2001)

The Power of Self-Awareness

With self-awareness, person has 50-50 chance (49%) of demonstrating selfmanagement; without it, person has virtually no chance (4%). With self-awareness, person has 38% chance of having social awareness; without it, person has 83% chance of lacking social awareness.

Source: Burckle & Boyatzis (1999)

How Do EI Competencies Fit Together?

Some competencies are easier to develop (e.g., for Social Skills) than others (e.g., for SelfAwareness, Self-Management and Social Awareness). Some competencies are more important than others. Certain combinations of competencies may contribute to outstanding performance. One competency may compensate for another. You do not need to master every competency to be successful.

2000, HayGroup. Reprinted with permission.

Why Should You Know About EI? A Wake-up Call (1 of 3)

70% of the reasons for losing clients/customers are EI-related:

Poor service. Poorly handled complaints. Unpleasant interactions. Didnt go the extra mile. No follow-up. Lack of human connection.

Source: Research by Forum Corporation on Manufacturing and Service Companies,

1989-1995, cited in Orioli (2000)

Can You Hear Me Now?

(2 of 3)

75% of the reasons careers get derailed are EI-related:

Unsatisfactory team leadership during challenging times. Inability to handle interpersonal issues. Inability to adapt to change. Inability to elicit trust.

Source: Research at the Center for Creative Leadership, 1994,

cited in Orioli (2000)

Are You Up Yet?

(3 of 3)

50% of time wasted is due to lack of trust.

Source: John Whitney, Director, Deming Center for Quality Management,

cited in Orioli (2000)

Like EI, Leadership Has Many Models and Some Consensus

My viewpoint on what the leader does:

Creates vision for a better future Sets direction, tone and context Sets priorities and tempo Sets, models and maintains standards Engages, influences and rallies others Encourages fresh approaches to problems Listens for what is common and uniting

Whats Different Between EI & Leadership Competencies?

Differences: Leadership

Includes intellectual/cognitive and business skills and performance Includes technical skills and performance May include personality traits

Difference: Emotional Intelligence

Includes managing ones own and influencing others positive outlook/mood

Whats Similar Across EI & Leadership Competencies?

Similarities: Both include

Congruency of personal values and ethical behavior Self-awareness, self-management and motivation Awareness of others and social environment Building relationships and working well with others

Perspectives from Peter Drucker and Daniel Goleman

Your foremost job as a leader is to take charge of your own energy and then help orchestrate the energy of those around you.

In any human group the leader has maximal power to sway everyones emotionsThe effects of primal leadership extend beyond ensuring that a job is well done. Followers also look to a leader for supportive emotional connection for empathy.
Sources: The Effective Leader, cited in Orioli (2000); Goleman, Boyatzis, & McKee (2002, p. 5)

Part 4 What Now?

Using EI & Coaching to Close Leadership Gap - Actions

1. 2.



Follow andragogical principles to learning Use and support integrated approach to developing sustainable leadership Discover, create and refine coaching models that leverage benefits while reducing per person cost Pair coaching with other interventions to provide synergy for results

1. Use Andragogical Principles

Definition: an integrated framework of adult learning

Assumptions: Adults
1. 2. 3.




Need to know why they need to learn something before starting to learn it. Have self-concept of being responsible for their own decisions. Come to educational activity with greater volume and different quality of experiences from youth. Implications for individual differences and richest resources source. Become ready to learn what they need to know to cope effectively with their real-life situations. Are life-centered (vs. subject-centered) in their orientation to learning. They learn most effectively when they are presented in context of application to real-life situations. Generate most potent motivators as internal pressures (desire for increased job satisfaction, self-esteem, etc.)

Source: Knowles, Holton, & Swanson (1998, pp. 64-69)

2. Use Integrated Approach

Executive/management accountability

HR accountability

Leadership as strategic priority Personal responsibility for development Model required behaviors & attitudes

Follow EI guidelines for best practice

Aligned people & organizational initiatives Provide conditions where managers act as people managers Value demonstrated through people alignment with strategic direction & core values

Sources: Weiss & Molinaro (2005, chapter 14); Cherniss (n.d.); Cherniss & Caplan (2001)

3. New Coaching Models

Include & move beyond one on one coaching:

Group coaching Team coaching Peer coaching Shadow coaching Cross-supervisory coaching Coaching culture

4. Coaching Plus

Coaching to support:

Training & education Onboarding & orientation Expatriation & repatriation Promotional transitions Job changes Leadership changes Health and work-life balance concerns

Review of Key Points

Crisis in sustainable leadership Requires integrated approach, with leader & organizational accountabilities Coaching one of several important interventions to develop leadership Emotional intelligence and leadership competencies significantly overlap Developing EI (throughout organization) supports embedding leadership & engagement

Appendix 1 Example of Talent Management

How to Address Targeted Investment in People

Allstate Talent Management Program Talent Management An enterprisewide system for defining future requirements and identifying, assessing, and developing talent to place the best qualified people in critical leadership positions.

Source: Groff (2005)

Business Case for Effective Leadership

At its best, effective leadership (at all levels) Sets a company standard of excellence other enterprises want to emulate. Cultivates the next generation for effective leadership continuity. Makes organizations culture a competitive asset. Creates a learning environment where people may try the new without fear of rejection and reprisal--fostering innovation.
Source: Groff (2005)

Aligning Talent with Business Needs

Business Imperatives New Role Expectations

Communicate New Behaviors Needed


Meet Business Needs

Perform Role

Build Capability Enhance Motivation

Source: Groff (2005)

Deepening the Focus on Leadership

Identify emerging leaders among:

Officers Directors/Senior Managers Managers Professional Individual Contributors (Exempt) Individual Contributors (Non-exempt)

Source: Groff (2005)

Leadership Development Curriculum

Different development experiences for different management levels. Development experiences designed for enterprise & business unit activities. Development experiences include:

Source: Groff (2005)

Education and Training Work-related Learning Progression and Mobility Choices

The Stand for Talent Management

We need the best leaders at all levels but we also need to understand where talent has the greatest impact on business results. Top and line management (plus HR & individuals in leadership development) are responsible for its success.

Source: Groff (2005)


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About John Lazar, MA, MCC, NCOC

John has worked within a performance improvement consulting framework for over 25 years. He has been a coach for over 22 years, eleven as an executive coach. He has a Masters degree in clinical and developmental psychology. He is trained and certified as an Ontological Coach by the Newfield Network and has been certified as a master coach by the International Coach Federation (ICF) since 1999. John is co-owner, co-founder, and co-executive editor of the International Journal of Coaching in Organizations (, now in its fourth year of quarterly publication. He is a founding member and the former Acting Executive Director of the International Consortium for Coaching in Organizations (ICCO,; he is currently a Co-Chair of its Governance and Ethics Committee. His performance consulting and executive coaching firm, John B. Lazar & Associates, Inc. (, works with organizations (from entrepreneurial ventures to small and midsize family owned firms to Fortune 50 companies) to create emotionally intelligent leaders, motivated performers, workplaces that work, and business results. He has presented at numerous local chapter meetings and international conferences on a variety of topics in North America, Mexico, Europe and Australia. In 2005, the book Conversations on Success (Volume 6) was published with interviews with 23 success leaders, including John. In addition, his 12-part series of DVDs/CDs on Take Your Power Back and a two-DVD interview series with Les Brown and John, entitled Master Keys to Success, were released and are available from his website.