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M.

KUMARASAMY COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING


CHEMISTRY SEMINAR

PRESENTED BY, VISHNU PRIYAA.V.T, SUMATHI.J, RUTHRA PRIYA.G, KALPANA.S.

FUEL
A fuel is a combustible substance, which on burning gives large amount of heat. In this carbon and hydrogen combine with oxygen with stimulatoneous liberation of heat.

TYPES OF FUELS

Solid coal Liquid petrol


Gas LPG, Natural Gas

SOLID FUEL:
Formed as a result of vegetable matter under some favourable conditions . E.G : COAL

LIQUID -FUEL
Dark brown or black colour viscous oil found deep in earths crust It gets from crude oil E.G: petrol

GASEOUS FUEL
Obtained as a by product during fractional distillation of crude oil And heavy oil Consist propane &butane E.G: LPG

Make lists of the top 5 countries: Oil production Remaining to date (since ~1860) oil reserves USA FSU Current (2007) rate of KSA KSA oil production Iraq Iran Iran KSA Venezuela Kuwait FSU UAE/Venez USA Iran China

COAL
It is an important primary solid fuel, that has been formed as a result of alteration of vegetable matter under some favourable conditions. Coalification or metamorphism The process of conversion of vegetable matter to anthracite is called coalification or metamorphism of coal.

FORMATION OF COAL

COAL FIELDS

ANALYSIS OF COALS
PROXIMATE ANALYSIS: Moisture content Volatile matter Ash content Fixed carbon in coal

ULTIMATE ANALYSIS
Carbon and hydrogen content Nitrogen content Sulphur content Ash content Oxygen content

BY PRODUCTS OF COAL

Aspartame products

Aspartame

AMMONIA

BENZENE

TAR &

HYDROGEN SULPHIDE

QUALITY OF BY-PRODUCTS Purity, Porosity, Strength, Calorific value, Combustibility, Reactivity, Cost.

ADVANTAGES

Valuable of by products are produced by coal. Easily combustible, and burns at low temperature. Widely and easily distributed all over the world. Most coal fired power stations have dedicated rail links to supply the coal.

PETROL:
Petroleum has been used by humans. These early users depended on seep. Petroleum covers the both crude oils and petroleum products. A fossil fuel: it is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton

PETROLIUM:
a thick, flammable, yellow-to-black mixture of solid, liquid, and gaseous HYDROCARBON: organic compounds consisting of H and C PEAK OIL: Concern over the depletion of the earth's finite reserves of oil

CRUDE OIL

ADVANTAGES:

Relatively concentrated and travel many hundred km not difficult to make - it just has to be distilled and no waste is produced easy to carry around

fairly safe to store

DISADVANTAGES:
supply of petrol is decreasing the high demand of petrol so the price is increasing. affects the environment when petrol is burned. used to create other products like plastics and chemicals Wars and international disputes have formed from petrol

APPLICATIONS OF PETROL: The most obvious use for petroleum is as fuel.

USAGE OF PETROL IN OUR LIFE

The Versatility of Petroleum

SOLVENTS

LUBRICANT

WAX

VASELINE

ASPHALT

PLASTICS AND SYNTHETIC

Even at the most trival level, plastics have remained front-and-centre in culture Major Fads (and year invented):

Silly Putty (1949)

Frisbee (1957)

Hula Hoop (1958)

Super Ball (1965)

Rubiks Cube (1980)

Wacky Wallwalker(1982)

The foundation of modern society The lifeblood of modern civilization The Prize 20th century = The Oil Century

Petroleum is a non-renewable resource that took millions of years to form.


Our use of it has been unsustainable.

LIQUEFIED PETROLEUM GAS


It is obtained as a by-product during fractional distillation of crude oil or by cracking of heavy oil. It can be readily liquefied under pressure, so it can be economically stored and transported in cylinders. The average composition of LPG is butane & propane.

PROPERTIES
It is a cheapest, cleanest and least enviroinmentally impacting alternative fuel. Vehicles are also used this gas and produce less carbonmonoxide, hydrocarbon emission. It is less expensive than petrol and disel.
The ignition temperature of this gas is about 500 degree celsious.

ADVATAGES
LPG is cheaper than petrol (up to 50%) It produces less exhaust emissions than petrol It is better for the engine and it can prolong engine life In some vehicles, it can provide better performance Has a higher octane rating than petrol 91)

DISADVANTAGES:

It isn't highly available


The initial cost for converting your vehicle to LPG can cost up to $3000. lower energy density than petrol

No new passenger cars come readily fitted with LPG


takes considerable amount of space in the car boot

APPLICATIONS

GAS LIGHT