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HISTORY

5/19/2013

Acceptance sampling plan was applied by the US military to the testing of bullet during World War ll. If every bullet was tested in advance, no bullets would be left to ship, since testing was required for firing. If on the other hand, none were tested, malfunction might occur in the battle field with potential disastrous result.

2

**WHY ACCEPTANC SAMPLING
**

The are several situations when 100% inspection is not practical: When testing is destructive, otherwise all the products will be lost. When inspection cost is very high. When many similar products are to be tested. When efforts required for testing is very high.

3

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When time and technology limitations are very high. When lot size is very large. Supplier’s quality history is good enough to justify less than 100% inspection.

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4

ADVANTAGES

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**It is economical. It requires less time and less effort. It requires less personnel, etc.
**

5

DISADVANTAGES

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There is always high risk for both the producer and the customer. Requires expertise in statistical aspects.

6

**SOME DEFINITIONS RELATED TO SAMPLING PLAN
**

5/19/2013

Acceptance Quality Level (AQL): this is the poorest quality level of the supplier’s process that the customer would consider to be acceptable as a process average.

Lot Tolerance Percentage Defect (LTPD): This is the poorest quality that a consumer is willing to tolerate in an individual lot.

7

5/19/2013

Producer’s Risk Type 1 error, α : probability of rejecting a good lot.

this is the

Customer’s Risk, Type 2 error, β : this is the probability of accepting a bad lot.

8

**SINGLE SAMPLING PLAN
**

5/19/2013

A single sampling plan is the simplest and shortest plan. Here decision is based on single trial. A sample size (n) is drawn from a batch or lot (N). If the number of non conforming units is less or equal to a predetermined number(c), then the lot is accepted, otherwise rejected.

9

Let lot size, N=1000, sample size=30, acceptance number, c=2. This means that the batch to be inspected contains 1000 pieces of garments. 30 pieces garments are randomly drawn from the batch and inspected. If the number of nonconforming units if found less than or equal to 2 pieces, then entire batch is accepted, if the number of nonconforming units is more than 2 pieces, then the entire batch is rejected.

5/19/2013

10

OPERATING CHARACTERISTIC CURVE

OC curve

**PERMUTATION AND COMBINATION
**

A permutation is any arrangement of r objects selected from n possible objects. The order of arrangement is important in permutations. A combination is the number of ways to choose r objects from a group of n objects without regard to order.

EXAMPLE Suppose that in addition to selecting the group, he must also rank each of the players in that starting lineup according to their ability.

12 P 5

EXAMPLE There are 12 players on the Carolina Forest High School basketball team. Coach Thompson must pick five players among the twelve on the team to comprise the starting lineup. How many different groups are possible?

12 C5

12! 95,040 (12 5)!

12! 792 5!(12 5)!

5-12

**PROBABILITY OF ACCEPTANCE SINGLE SAMPLING PLAN
**

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Suppose, N = 1000 n = 30 c=2

13

**PROBABILITY OF ACCEPTANCE WHEN ACTUAL NON CONFORMANCE 1% OR 0.01
**

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P(0) = 30C0 x (0.01)0 x (1-0.01)30-0

=0.7397

P(1) = 30C1 x (0.01)1 x (1-0.01)30-1

=0.22415

P(2) = 30C2 x (0.01)2 x (1-0.01)30-2

=.03283

14

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Total probability of acceptance when actual non conformance 1% or 0.01

**Pa (0.01) = P(0) + P(1) + P(2) = 0.7397 + 0.22415 + 0.03283 = 0.99668 = 99.668 %
**

15

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Total probability of acceptance when actual non conformance 15% or 0.15

**Pa (0.15) = P(0) + P(1) + P(2) = 0.00763 + 0.04039 + 0.10337 = 0.15139 = 15.139%
**

16

**OC CURVE – SINGLE SAMPLING PLAN
**

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17

5/19/2013

This curve plots the probability of accepting the lot (Y-axis) versus the lot fraction nonconforming or percent defectives (X-axis).

18

DOUBLE

SAMPLING PLAN

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Lot Size = N Sample size in the 1st trial = n1 Sample size in the 2nd trial = n2 Acceptance no. for 1st trial = c1 2nd Acceptance no.= c2 No. of defects for 1st sample = D1 No. of defects for 2nd sample = D2

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5/19/2013

In the first trial, sample n1 is taken from the lot N. If the defects D1 is less or equal to acceptance no c1, then the entire lot is accepted, without requiring the second trial. If D1 is greater than acceptance no c2, then the entire lot is rejected without requiring the 2nd trial. In case D1 is greater than c1 but less or equal to c2, then the 2nd sample size n2 is taken. If D1+D2 is less than or equal to c2, then the lot is accepted otherwise rejected.

20

Suppose, N=3000, n1=40, n2 = 80, c1=1, c2=4 A lot contains 3000 units of garments, in the 1st trial 40 units are randomly drawn. If the defective unit is less or equal to 1, lot is accepted, without requiring the 2nd trial. If the no defective units are greater than 4 then the entire lot is rejected without requiring the 2nd trial. If the defective units are 2 or 3 or 4 then 2nd sample 80 pieces are taken. If the total defective units (1st + 2nd ) is less or equal to 4 then the lot is accepted, otherwise rejected.

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Sample n1 is taken

Is D1 <= c1 ? N Is D1 > c 2? N Sample n2 is taken

Y

Accept lot

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Y

Reject lot

Is D1+D2 > c2 ? N

Y

Reject lot

Accept lot

22

**PROBABILITY OF ACCEPTANCE DOUBLE SAMPLING PLAN
**

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Suppose, N = 3000 n1 = 40, c1 = 2 n2 = 80, c2 = 4 D1 = nonconforming from n1= 40 sample D2 = nonconforming from n2= 80 sample

23

**PROBABILITY OF ACCEPTANCE IN 1ST SAMPLE WHEN ACTUAL NON CONFORMANCE 5% OR 0.05
**

5/19/2013

P(0) = 40C0 x (0.05)0 x (1-0.05)40-0

=0.128512

P(1) = 40C1 x (0.05)1 x (1-0.05)40-1

=0.27055

P(2) = 40C2 x (0.05)2 x (1-0.05)40-2

=0.27767

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Total probability of acceptance in 1st sample when actual non conformance 5% or 0.05

P1

**= P(0) + P(1) + P(2) = 0.128512 + 0.27055 + 0.27767 = 0.67673 = 67.673%
**

25

**PROBABILITY OF ACCEPTANCE IN 2ND SAMPLE WHEN ACTUAL NON CONFORMANCE 5% OR 0.05
**

5/19/2013

P2 (D1=3 & D2=0) = { 40C3 x (0.05)3 x (1-0.05)40-3 } X {

=0.003057

80C x 0

(0.05)0 x (1-0.05)80-0 }

P2 (D1=3 & D2=1) = { 40C3 x (0.05)3 x (1-0.05)40-3 } X {

=0.01287

80C x 1

(0.05)1 x (1-0.05)80-1 }

P2 (D1=4 & D2=0) = { 40C4 x (0.05)4 x (1-0.05)40-4 } X {

=0.001488

80C x 0

(0.05)0 x (1-0.05)80-0 }

26

**TOTAL PROBABILITY OF ACCEPTANCE IN 2ND
**

SAMPLE WHEN ACTUAL NON CONFORMANCE 5% OR 0.05 P2 = P2 (D1=3 & D2=0) + P2 (D1=3 & D2=1) + P2 (D1=4 & D2=0)

= 0.003057 + 0.01287 + 0.001488 = 0.017415 =1.74%

5/19/2013

27

**TOTAL COMBINED PROBABILITY OF ACCEPTANCE INCLUDING 1ST & 2ND SAMPLE WHEN ACTUAL NON CONFORMANCE IS 5% OR 0.05
**

5/19/2013

Pa = P1 + P2 = 0.67673 + 0.017415 = 0.694145 = 69.4145%

28

**OC CURVE – DOUBLE SAMPLING PLAN
**

5/19/2013

29

**MULTIPLE SAMPLING PLAN
**

(extension of double sampling plan)

5/19/2013

In double sampling plan, samples are taken maximum twice, where in multiple sampling plan, samples are taken many times before a decision is taken, regarding acceptance or rejection.

31

5/19/2013

Similar to double sampling plan, an acceptance number and a rejection number is specified. At any sample, if cumulative number of defectives is less than or equal to the acceptance number, the entire lot is accepted and no more samples are taken or in the other way to say, the process of sampling is stopped. At any sample, if the cumulative number of defectives is more than or equal to rejection number, the entire lot is rejected and no more sample is taken. The process of taking samples continues only if the number of defectives is more then the acceptance number but less than the rejection number.

32

5/19/2013

Sample Number

Sample Size

Cumulative Sample Size

Cumulative Acceptance Number

Cumulative Rejection Number

Take another sample if number of cumulative defectives

1 2 3

50 50 50

50 100 150

1 2 3

3 4 5

2 3 4

33

**SEQUENTIAL SAMPLING PLAN
**

(extension of double sampling plan)

5/19/2013

The acceptance number or rejection number are not by fixed numbers, rather in terms acceptance and rejection region. There are two types of sequecial sampling with respect to nature of drawing the sample

1.

2.

**Item by item Group
**

35

36

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5/19/2013

For example, if α = 0.05 = probability of type 1 error β = 0.10 = probability of type 2 error P1 = 0.01 = fraction nonconforming for which probability of acceptance is high P2 = 0.10 = fraction nonconforming for which probability of acceptance is low Then, X1 = -a1 + b*n = -0.939 + 0.04 * n X2 = a2 + b*n = 1.205 + 0.04 * n

38

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Both acceptance number and rejection numbers must be integers. The acceptance number is the next integer less than or equal to X1 and the rejection number is the next number greater than or equal to X2.

39

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For, n =1 X1 = -0.899 ~ -1 X2 = 1.245 ~ 2

40

Units Inspected

Accept the lot if cumulative defectives are -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

Reject the lot if cumulative defectives are 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

5/19/2013

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8

9 10

-1

-1 -1

2

2 2

41

Units Inspected

Accept the lot if cumulative defectives are -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1

Reject the lot if cumulative defectives are 2 2 2 2 2 2 2

5/19/2013

11 12 13 14 15 16 17

18

19 20

-1

-1 -1

2

2 3

42

Units Inspected

Accept the lot if cumulative defectives are -1 -1 -1 0 0 0

**Reject the lot if cumulative defectives are 3 3 3 3 3 3
**

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21 22 23 24 25 26

48

49 58 74 83 100 109

0

1 1 2 2 3 3

4

4 4 5 5 6 6

43

**MILITARY & ANSI STANDARDS
**

Special Sampling Plan

5/19/2013

**Military Standard 105A (1950) Military Standard 105D (1963) ANSI / ASQC Z1.4
**

45

TYPE OF INSPECTION

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Normal Inspection (Level 2); sample size n Tightened Inspection (Level 3); sample size 2n

Reduced or Loose Inspection (Level 1); sample size n/2

46

5/19/2013

Tighten

Normal

Reduced

47

SWITCHING RULES

5/19/2013

Normal to Tighten

2 out of 5 consecutive batches are rejected.

Tighten to Normal:

5 consecutive batches are accepted.

48

5/19/2013

Normal to Reduced :

The earliar10 consecutive lots are acceptable under Normal Inspection The number of non conforming units in the earlier 10 lots is equal to or less than acceptance limit numbers. Production is steady and no signal is evident for any untoward incident. Reduced Inspection is desired for some meaningful purpose.

49

5/19/2013

Reduced to Normal :

1 lot has been rejected. A lot has been accepted under reduced inspection, but the number of non conforming units fell in the “Continue Sampling” region. Production is irregular and signal is evident for untoward incidence. Any other condition that suggest for Normal Inspection. If 10 consecutive lots remain under Tighten Inspection, then the sampling and inspection process are stopped.

50

51

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52

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5/19/2013

Md. Imrul Kaes - Acceptance Sampling 2013-5-19

Md. Imrul Kaes - Acceptance Sampling 2013-5-19

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