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price fixation and disposition of profits among others.Industrial Relations The relation between an employee and an employer in the course of running of an industry and may project itself to spheres which may transgress to the areas of quality control. but also for those involving Government with the aim of defining policies. is an expression used not only for relationships between employers and Trade Unions. . marketing. Industrial Relations or Labour relations. facing labour problems.
Affects various aspects of economic and social life. Technological changes is a continuous process which covers a series of developments. .mechanization.training. The relation b/w technological changes and Industrial Relation is very important subject Those interested in industrial relation have been concerned with the effects of the technology on labour management issues such as manpower.Concept of Technological Change Technology is an instrument of development.redundancy.job security.increase in mass o production.
managerial knowledge and skills Hader Ferman and Hudson have identified certain changes which affect jobs and influence skills in American industrial system.but also related o improvement in working conditions. Technology implies not only better and more sophisticated machines. These Technological Changes are1) Scientific Management Or time and Motion studies 2) shift in location of plants 3) shift in product demand 4) change in machinery 5) Automation .
. technology itself controls the operations. The machine provides data from its operations and feeds it back to its own controls which governs the production process. In Automation. material and men.Rationalisation & Automation Rationalisation implies a basic change in the structure and control of industrial activities. Its techniques can be applied to methods.
Implementation of Rationalisation and Automation in India Influenced by American Model To Increase productive efficiency Vast surplus of Labour after II World War Safeguards by Labour Ministry and Planning Commission-Fixing the work load -Stopping fresh Recruitment -Offering higher wages -Voluntary Retirement -Sharing of gains Second Five year plan. .Rationalization was to be attempted only when it did not lead to unemployment.
Jute and Coal Cotton-textile. old methods in small mines .Introduced in the form of efficiency measures.Progress of Rationalisation and Automation in India 3 industries.International Competition . .Workers accepted it. Dependence on foreign country for Raw Material Coal.Progress slow. Jute.Cotton-textile.Rationalization in larger mines. -Additional strain & Inadequate increase in earnings.
planning and thought. . Management arguedaccelerated industrialization. raised standard of living.Automation at LIC (1963) Central trade union organization opposed it. Loss of employment and addition to cost. increased productivity.meeting of Standing Labour Committee to consider the impact of automation and remedial measures. In order to bring reconciliation. There was underutilization of computers because they were introduced without adequate preparation.
namely: 1)The effect on employment in relation to the whole economy 2)The effect on employment in the relevant departments of these establishments.Cont…. The question of installation of computers in these established industries were to be governed by two criteria. .
Absenteeism. resignations etc.Strikes. Job Satisfaction Worker & Union Reations Changes in job content thereby creating new jobs to replace old ones Fitting new jobs into the existing incentive scheme Labour saving Improves level of earnings Higher productivity Reduction in cost and increase in benefits Product standardization .Impact of Technological Change NEGATIVE IMPACT POSITIVE IMPACT Impact on employment Redundancy Occupational Adjustment Allocation of gains Transfer & Retraining Problems Resistance to change.
technical know how and infrastructure. . Example.Appropriate Technology: Its relevance to the Indian Context The kind of technology which would be found appropriate to the conditions found in the country where it was being introduced.The solar pump developed by a French firm which is being used in Mexico. Less developed countries do not possess requisite labour skills to replace the machine skills.
CONCLUSION Thus. . one must not only examine very carefully the cost benefit analysis from the economic point of view but also take into account the repercussions on industrial relations.