Planning of maintenance jobs basically deals with answering two questions, ‘what’ and ‘How’ of the job; ‘what activities are to be done?’ and ‘how those jobs and activities are to be done?’
Steps of Job Planning
1. Knowledge base: It includes knowledge about equipment, job, available techniques, materials and facilities. 2. Job investigation at site: It gives a clear perception of the total jobs. 3. Identify and document the work: Knowing the earlier two steps and knowing the needs of preventive, predictive and other maintenance jobs. 4. Development of repair plan: Preparation of step by step procedures which would accomplish the work with the most economical use of time, manpower and material.
Preparation tools and facilities list indicating the needs of special tools. 6.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
. tackles and facilities needed. Estimation of time required to do the job with work measurement technique and critical path analysis.
REASONS FOR GENERATION AND ACCUMULATION OF OBSOLETE.
. SURPLUS AND SCRAP ITEMS.
Changes in product design Cannibalization Faulty planning and forecasting Faulty purchase practices Other causes
. 5. 2. 4.
Part description A B C Date of issue Stock on hand Value
Sl. No.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL OF WASTE
The combining process of combining the stock records and movement analysis has been found very effective in locating such stocks in the total inventory.
This helps in several ways. a senior executive from materials management must definitely be kept in the picture. design and product lines are contemplated. He is in a position to inform top management of the amount of stock of materials on hand that are likely to be rendered obsolete if and when the changes are introduced.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
Whenever changes in production programme.
continuous market survey on the prices of various categories of scrap generated in the plant and constant touch with the industries which generate similar scrap and with the endusers.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
DISPOSAL OF SCRAP
• Disposal of scrap when handled in an imaginative manner can result in handsome returns to the organization.
. An effective disposal requires a compact disposal organization reporting to the materials manager.
Automation is a technology concerned with the application of mechanical. electronic.
. and computer based systems to operate and control production.
Fixed automation. and 3. Flexible automation.
. Programmable automation.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
TYPES OF AUTOMATION 1. 2.
(c) Relatively inflexible in accommodating product changes. FIXED AUTOMATION The typical features of fixed automation are:
(a) High initial investment for custom–Engineered equipment.
1. (b) High production rates.
(c) Flexibility to deal with changes in product configuration.
2. (d) Most suitable for batch production. PROGRAMMABLE AUTOMATION
(a) High investment in general-purpose equipment. (b) Low production rates relative to fixed automation.
(d) Flexibility to deal with product design variations.
3. (b) Continuous production of variable mixtures of products. (c) Medium production rates. FLEXIBLE AUTOMATION
(a) High investment for a custom-engineered system.
2. 5.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
REASONS FOR AUTOMATION
1. 4. 6. 3.
Increased productivity High cost of labour Labour shortages Trend of labour toward the service sector Safety High cost of raw materials
7. High cost of not automating
. Improved product quality 8. Reduced manufacturing lead time 9. Reduction of in-process inventory 10.
Improved material handling and storage systems. 3. 4. 2. 5.
Specialization of operations. Increased flexibility.
. Combined operations. Simultaneous operations.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
Computer integrated manufacturing (CIM). 9. On-line inspection. Plant operations control. 8.
. 10.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
7. Process control and optimization.
Nearly all modern production systems are implemented today using computer systems.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING
The computers had done a dramatic impact on the development of production automation technologies. and perform the various business related functions needed in a manufacturing firm. The term computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) has been coined to denote the pervasive use of computers to design the products. plan the production. Computer Aided Design and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) in another term that is used synonymously with CIM.
. control the operations.
AUTOMATED FLOW LINES An automated flow line consists of several machines or workstations which are linked together by work handling devices that transfer parts between the stations.
Production Auto 1
Production Auto 2
Production Auto 3
Production Auto 4
Production Auto 5
To achieve specialization of operations.
. 6. To reduce labor costs. To increase production rates. To reduce work-in-process. 3.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
The objectives of the use of flow line automation are:
1. 2. 5. To achieve integration of operations. To minimize distances moved between operations. 4.
• • In-line Type Rotary Type
There are two general forms that the workflow can take.
AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLES SYSTEMS An automated or automatic guided vehicle system (AGVS) is a materials handling system that uses independently operated. self-propelled vehicles that are guided along defined pathways in the floor.
Types of AGVS 1. Driverless trains: The type consists of a towing vehicle (which is the AGV) that pulls one or more trailers to form a train.
In the typical application the vehicle is backed into the loaded pallet by a human worker who steers the truck and uses its forks to elevate the load slightly.
. AGVS pallet trucks: Automated guided pallet trucks are used to move palletized loads along predetermined routes.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
They are often equipped for automatic loading and unloading by means of powered rollers.PRODUCTION MANAGEMENT
3. mechanized lift platforms. moving belts. AGVS unit load carriers: This type of AGVS is used to move unit loads from one station to another station.
. or other devices.