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CHE 493

Fluid Mechanics
Chapter 8:
Turbulent Flow in Circular
Pipes
Learning Outcome
1. Derive the formula for friction factor.
2.Able to use friction factor chart.
3. Calculate head and energy loss due to friction
in pipes.

Turbulent Flow
Most flow encountered in engineering practice are
turbulent how turbulences affects wall shear stress
Turbulent flow characterized by random and rapid
fluctuations of swirling regions of fluid (eddies)
throughout the flow
The swirling eddies transport mass, momentum and
energy to other regions of flow more rapidly from
molecular diffusion higher values of friction, heat and
mass transfer
The chaotic fluctuations of fluid particles in turbulent flow
play a dominant role in pressure drop

Fully Developed Pipe Flow
Wall-shear stress
Recall, for simple shear flows u=u(y), we had
t = du/dy
In fully developed pipe flow, it turns out that
t = du/dr
Laminar Turbulent
t
w

t
w

t
w,turb
> t
w,lam
t
w
= shear stress at the wall,
acting on the fluid
Velocity Profile
Turbulent flow along a wall consist of
4 regions characterized by the
distance from the wall
1. Viscous/laminar/linear/wall
sublayer very linear, flow is
streamlined
2. Buffer layer flow is still
dominated by viscous effect
3. Overlap/transition layer
turbulent effects more significant
but not dominant
4. Outer/turbulent layer turbulent
effects dominate over viscous
effect

Laminar and Turbulent
Flows
For non-round pipes, define the
hydraulic diameter, D
h


D
h
= 4A/P
A

= cross-section area
P = wetted perimeter


Darcy Weisbach Equation
Pressure drop



Where:
f = friction factor
L = pipe length, m
d = pipe diameter, m
u = average flow velocity, m/s
g = acceleration of gravity, m/s
2
2
u
d
L
f P
2
=
Darcy Weisbach Equation
Head loss
The loss of pressure in a flow system measured using a
length parameter (i.e., inches, meter etc.)

Pressure loss in terms of head loss, h
L

= =
2g
u
d
L
f h
2
L
The Moody Chart
The friction factor in fully developed turbulent pipe flow
depends on the Reynolds number and the relative
roughness


Value of is determined experimentally by using
artificially roughened surfaces (by gluing sand grains in the
inner of pipes) by Prandtls student.
Friction factor was calculated from the measurements of
flow rate and pressure drop.
Colebrook equation:


The Moody Chart
Observations from Moody chart:

For laminar flow, f with Re; independent of
surface roughness.
f minimum for smooth pipe & with
roughness.
Transition region shaded area.
>> Re the line is nearly horizontal thus
making it independent of Re

Types of Fluid Flow Problems
Pressure drop (or head loss) pipe length &
diameter given for specified flow rate (or
velocity)
Flow rate - pipe length & diameter given for
specified pressure drop (or head loss)
Pipe diameter - pipe length & flow rate given
for specified pressure drop (or head loss)
Minor Losses
Fluid in piping system passes through various
fittings, valves, bends, elbows, tees, inlets, exits,
enlargements and contractions.
These components interrupt the smooth flow of
the fluid inducing flow separation and mixing
which cause additional losses.
In a long pipe system, these losses are minor
(minor losses) compared to the total head loss in
the pipes (major losses).

Minor Losses
1. Loss coefficient, K
L
where


2. Equivalent length, L
equiv




where

Minor Losses
Total head loss (general)



Total head loss (D = constant, V = constant)

Example 1
Water at 15C ( = 999 kg/m
3
and = 1.138 x 10
-3
Pa.s) is flowing steadily in a 5 cm diameter
horizontal pipe made of stainless steel at a rate
of 0.34m
3
/min. Determine the pressure drop
and the head loss for flow over a 61 m long
section of the pipe.


Ans: P = 88.9 kPa; h
L
= 9.07 m
Calculate average
velocity, Re to
determine flow
regime
Determine relative
roughness
Determine the
friction factor from
Moody chart
Calculate the
pressure drop
Calculate the head
loss
2
u
d
L
f P
2
=
f = 0.01734
Losses Due to Sudden
Enlargement
When the pipe diameter increases abruptly, the fluid
experience shock.
This causes the formation of eddies and some
energy is lost due to increased local turbulence.
This head loss can be evaluated using the continuity,
momentum and energy principles.
Applying the continuity equation between sections 1 & 2

Neglecting the shear forces on the walls by momentum
equation

External force = Rate of change of momentum









(A)
2
2
Applying Bernoullis equation between section 1 & 2 and
taking horizontal axis as the datum;


Where h
L
is the energy loss due to sudden expansion.
Rearranging the above equation;


Substituting for from (A);




g
v v
g
v v v
h
L
2
2
2
2
1 2 1
2
2

+

=
Using the continuity equation;







Where and v
1
= velocity in the smaller pipe

g
A
A v
v
h
L
2
2
2
1 1
1
|
|
.
|

\
|

=
Exit Loss
When a pipe discharges into a large reservoir, some energy is
dissipated by mixing and turbulence
In this case A
2
>> A
1,
therefore




Even if the discharge is free, all the kinetic energy is lost
(converted to thermal energy causing a small temperature
rise in the fluid in the reservoir)

Losses Due to Sudden
Contraction
Consider an abrupt contraction of a pipe from are A
1
to A
2
as
shown below







The flow converges up to the vena contracta
A
x
is expressed as


Using continuity equation:



It is assumed that all of the energy loss occurs when the jet
expands from A
x
to A
2



Coefficient of contraction
The expression is valid if
the ratio of A
1
/A
2
is
between 0.1 and 1
Entrance Loss
A poorly designed inlet to a pipe can cause an appreciable
head loss.
Various common inlet conditions:




A slight off will reduce the loss drastically
For a sharp entrance, provided the pipe does not protrude
into the reservoir:





Losses in Pipe Fittings
A pumping system will have connections which
change the size and direction of the pipe
Pipe fittings such as valves and elbows
constrict/change the flow direction cause
additional losses
These losses are expressed as equivalent to the
friction loss in a specific length of straight pipe of
the same diameter
The equivalent lengths expressed as a ratio to the
pipe diameter for typical fittings as shown on the
next table
This approximation is valid for pipe diameters 10mm to 250mm
Alternatively, the losses due to valves and fittings can be
expressed as: