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Language Elements Pronunciation Vocabulary Grammar .
“The rules that show how words are combined. Grammar determines how words are arranged to form meaningful units.” Based on Swan (2005.” . p. xix).” According to Coghill and Magendanz (2003.GRAMMAR Harmer (2002. xvi). 12) emphasizes “The grammar of a language is the description of the ways in which words can change their forms and can be combined into sentences in that language. p. p. arranged or changed to show certain kinds of meaning. “The grammar of a language is the set of rules that govern its structure.
2007.g.” (Harmer. beach. 2007. p. 210) An example of teaching grammar activity that is designed to get students making sentences using the present continous. park) Now. (Harmer. . on the spot field.Teaching Grammar “Grammar teaching sometimes happens as a result of other work the studenrs are doing. the teacher tells them to imagine they are in this place. 219) Example: Where am I? Focus: present continuous Age: young learners Level: elementary The teacher tells student to think of a place they would like to be ( e. p.
g. at a football game: A lot of people are shouting. the teacher can go around the class monitoring their progress and suggesting alternatives or prompting students who can think what to write. Someone is kicking a ball. .) While they are doing this. The teacher asks them to look around them and write down three things that they can see using the present continuous (e. One student now comes to the front of class. A man is blowing a whistle. reads out his or her senteces and then say where am I? and the other students try to guess.
697) defines vocabulary as “(1) stock of words used by person.VOCABULARY Regarding to Penny (1991." (2008. (2) a collection or list of words. p." Barnhart . 60). usually in alphabetical order and defined. as the words we teach in the foreign language. p. etc. class of people. roughly. "Vocabulary can be defined. profession.
p. An example of teaching vocabulary that is designed to focus students’ attention on an aspect of vocabulary is (Harmer. Students need to see words in context to see how they are used. 2007.Teaching Vocabulary When teaching vocabulary this is a major part of the teacher’s art. 229-230) .
or miming the action. for example: walk run jump swim climb .Example: Walking running jumping Focus: verb of movement Age: adult Level: beginner The teacher starts by showing or drawing pictures.
.across the bridge e. Then you . Students are now asked to put the correct verb in sentences.along a road . Then you...across a river g...across a stream c.............over a wall h. for example: a.up a tree d.. You. Then you.along a road b.down a wall f.. Then you. Then you. Then you..... Then you..
Sit down walk up b. c. g.Finnaly. for example: a. e. jump climed . d. the students can be asked to write ne instructions using the new words. run stand sit lie Down On the box Of the box Round the room f.
1) “Pronunciation . stress and rhythm. 36). 2002.PRONUNCIATION According to Lindsay (2000) as cited by Jahan (2011.” refers to the production of sounds that we use to make meaning. p. p. intonation.” (Adult Migrant English Program Research Centre. “Pronunciation includes suprasegmental features and they are: sounds of the language.
248) An example of teaching pronunciation that is designed to get students to concentrate on specific aspects of pronunciation. 2007. p. 253-254). p. 2007. but can also improve their speaking immeasurably. for example: . Example: Ship and chip Sounds: /∫/ and /t∫/ Age: Intermediate The sequence starts with students listening to pairs of words and practicing the difference of /∫/ and /t∫/. especially when they are listening to hear the small difference between the sounds (Harmer.Teaching Pronunciation “Pronunciation teaching not only makes students aware of different sounds and sound fatures.” (Harmer.
ship sherry shoes sheep chip cherry choose cheap washing cash mash wish watching catch match which. 4. 3. Small shops / chops are often expensive. The disher / ditches need cleaning. 2. . She enjoys washing / watching the children. I couldn’t mash / match these things up. the teacher asks them to listen to a recording and. witch If the students have difficulty discriminating between/∫/ and /t∫/. for example: 1. in a series of exercise of exercise.
e. They now move on to exercise in which they say words or phrases with one sound or the other. It is very cheap a grey chair a cheese sandwich You cheat! a pretty child no chance .g.
The practice of English language teaching third edition. N. • Harmer. Jeremy. England: Pearson Education Limited. Inc. Jeffrey and Stacy. Magendanz. Oxford University Press. Practical English usage: 3rd Edition. Cambridge: University Press. (2008). Jeremy. • Harmer. Ur. English grammar.REFERENCE • Barnhart. (2007). • Penny. Journal of Education and Practice. England: Addison Wesley Longman Limited. 2(3).). (2003). • Jahan. Michael. (2002). The practice of English language teaching (third ed. Teaching and learning pronunciation in ESL/EFL classes of Bangladesh. Facts on File: Inc. The facts on file student’s dictionary of American English. A course in language teaching: practice and theory. • Coghill. • Swan. Cynthia A. (2005). (1991). New York: Wiley Publishing. . (2011).