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TRAINING AT TATA TELESERVICES

DATE OF JOINING: 1-06-2012 DEPARTMENT: TRANSMISSION

PRESENTED BY: ESHAN KHETERPAL E.C.E (7th Semester) 90690463141

Presentation on

NMS ( NETWORK MANAGEMENT SYSTEM) Transmission

CONTENTS
PDH PCM Sampling Quantization Types of signal E1s definition, structure Why E1 is used? How to calculate the bit rate of E1 Applications of E1 Reports

Morning tracker Software distribution Types of alarms Types of muxes Final reports in morning tracker SDH STM Framing

PDH ( Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy)


Plesio means = similar Chronous means= Timing Plesiochronous - "almost synchronous, because bits are stuffed into the frames as padding and the calls (signal) location varies slightly - jitters - from frame to frame".

Pulse Code Modulation

The basis of analog to digital conversion is Shannons theory.The theory states that after transmission the original signal can be reproduced within certain limits from digital signal obtained by Sampling an analog at regular intervals and at a rate at least twice the highest significant message frequency. The PCM Consists of 3 steps. Sampling Quantization Coding

Sampling
Audio Signal T1 T2 T3
time

T4 T5 T6 T7 Sampler Output
Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) signal 1. 2.

T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7

time

Voice Frequency 4 KHz Sampling 4 KHz * 2 = 8 KHz

Quantization & Encoding

Quantizing = Amplitude is given a certain value.


Encoding = 8 KHz * 8 = 64 KHz

TYPES OF SIGNAL
Voice Video and high quality video Data

DEFINATION OF E1
In this E stands for Electrical A 2.048Mbps Point to Point dedicated,digital circuit provided by telephone company An E1 line uses two wire pairs(one for transmit and one for receive) and TDM to interleave 32 64kb/s voice or data channels

2Mb FRAME STRUCTURE


32channels/Time slots

FAS (Frame Alignment signal)


NFAS(Non frame Alignment signal)

Signaling

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

Each channel is of 64Kb/s


32 * 64 KHz = 2.048 Mb/s Capacity = 30 Base Channels

WHY E1 IS USED?
As end users become ever more dependent on effective communications there has been an explosion in the demand for sophisticated telecom services. Services such as remote database access and multimedia file transfer etc require a flexible network. To implement those services telephone companies use E1 Line.

ANOTHER APPLICATIONS

BTS

Wireline Customers.
Leaseline Customers

REPORTS IN TRANSMISION

MORNING TRACKER SPAN DEGRADATION


Both the reports are the daily activities of transmission department.

MORNING TRACKER

It consists of the Name of the Mux at which alarm is observed, the board and the slot of the board, along with the Port number.

SOFTWARE DISTRIBUTION
NMS is Divided into two Parts RM Remote Manager NM Network Manager

RM(REMOTE MANAGER)
It Shows each MUX and their connectivities with the other MUX
It contain Map of punjab Region by region It contains list of E1 and their path provided

CONNECTIVITIES OF MUXes

NM(NETWORK MANAGER)
Consists of Several sections , used for viewing muxes and their alarms
It shows alarms along with the level of SDH MST , TU 12 , VC 12 , AU4, P12, E1 MSTTP is the alarm for Multiplex Section

TYPES OF MORNING TRACKER

MORNING TRACKER

VISIBILITY TRACKER

DEGRADATION TRACKER

INSIDE FAILURE TRACKER

SNAPSHOT OF ALARM LIST

TYPES OF ALARMS
LOS AIS SSF DS U PLM Loss of Signal - Alarm indication Signal - Server Signal Failure - Degraded Signal - Unequipped - Payload Mismatch

DISTRIBUTION OF MUXes
3 types of MUXES used in transmission MUX 1642 MUX 1660 MUX 1662

ALARM SUBLIST:CRITICAL

MUX NOT VISIBLE DUE TO FOLLOWING REASONS:


Problem Problem Problem Problem Problem in Synth card in flash card in optical connectivity in ethernet connectivity occur inside the mux

Loss of access/communication of a mux

ALARM SUBLIST: DEGRADATION

DEGRADATION OCCURS DUE TO

High traffic

Bad weather
Attenuation of signal through fiber

ALARM SUBLIST: ILM

ILM OCCURS AT

INTERNAL LINK FAILURE OCCURS DUE TO


Improper functioning of a card in mux Synth card is at 6th and 15th slot in 1662 mux Matrix card is at 23rd and 40th slot in 1660 mux

MORNING TRACKER : NE VISIBILITY TRACKER

MORNING TRACKER : DEGRADATION TRACKER

MORNING TRACKER : INSIDE FAILURE TRACKER

Comparison of PDH-SDH
PDH
The reference clock is not synchronized throughout the Network. Multiplexing / Demultiplexing Operations have to be performed from one level to the next level step by step. The payload is not transparent. It has different frame structures at different hierarchy levels. G.702 specifies maximum 45 Mbps and 140 Mbps and no higher order (faster) signal structure is not specified PDH system does not bear capacity to transport Broadband Signal. Few services are available Bit by Bit multiplexing

SDH
The reference clock is synchronized throughout the Network. The synchronous Multiplexing results in simple access to Multiplexed signals by pointer Evaluation. The payload is transparent. It has consistent frame structure throughout the hierarchy. G.707 specifies the 1st level of the SDH, that is STM-1.(STM-4,STM-16,STM-64) It is designed to be a transport medium for Broadband signals It will transport variety of services. Byte interleaved synchronous multiplexing

Why SDH (Synchronous Digital Hierarchy) ?


Need for extensive network management capability within the hierarchy. Standard interfaces between equipment. Need for inter-working between north American and European systems. Facilities to add or drop tributaries directly from a high speed signal.

Standardization of equipment management process.

SDH
SYNCHRONOUS :

DIGITAL:

ONE MASTER CLOCK & ALL ELEMENTS SYNCHRONISE WITH IT.


INFORMATION IN BINARY.

HIERARCHY:

Sdh is an ITU-T standard for a high capacity telecom network. Sdh is a synchronous digital transport system, aim to provide a simple, economical and flexible telecom infrastructure. Demultiplexing is achieved by gating out the required bytes from the digital stream. This allows a single channel to be dropped from the data stream without demultiplexing intermediate rates as is required in PDH. A Set of Improved & Standardized Management Interfaces and Functions, allowing Digital Transmission Systems to inter-work in a multi-vendor environment.

SET OF BIT RATES IN A HIERARCHIAL ORDER

SDH Rates
SDH is a transport hierarchy based on multiples of 155.52 Mbit/s The basic unit of SDH is STM-1:
STM-1 = 155.52 Mbit/s STM-4 = 622.08 Mbit/s STM-16 = 2588.32 Mbit/s STM-64 = 9953.28 Mbit/s

Each rate is an exact multiple of the lower rate therefore the hierarchy is synchronous

SDH Transport Rates


Signal Level STM-1 STM-4 STM-16 STM-64 Rate (Mbps) 155.52 622.08 2488.32 9953.28 Capacity 63 E1 3 E3 1 E4 252 E1 12 E3 4 E4 1008 E1 48 E3 16 E4

STM-1 frame structure


1-3 rows 4th row

RSOH
AU Pointer

PAY LOAD
5-9 rows

MSOH

9 Columns

261 Columns 270 Columns

Sampling rate of a 3400 Hz voice channel -> 8000 Hz(After Applying Sampling Theorm fs>=2fm) 8000 Hz * 1 byte = 64 kbit/s 9 * 270 * 8 bit * 8000 Hz = 155.52 Mbit/s Basic data rate in SDH STM-1 -> Synchronous Transport Module Level-1

STM-1 Section Overhead

Section Overhead Functions


Frame Alignment Parity Check STM-1 identification Alarm information APS DCC Oderwire User Channel

Regenerator Section Overhead


A1 & A2 Framing Bytes These two bytes indicate the beginning of the STM-N frame

J0 Regenerator Section Trace Its used to transmit a Section Access Point Identifier so that a section receiver can verify its continued connection to the intended transmitter Identifies by a number in the individual STM 1s of a higher order STM - n

B1- Bit Interleaved parity (BIP-8)


This is a parity code (even parity), used to check for transmission errors over a regenerator section Its value is calculated over all bits of the previous STM-N frame after scrambling, then placed in the B1 byte of STM-1 before scrambling

E1 Engineering Order wire


This byte functionality is available at both multiplexers and Regenerators

This byte is allocated to be used as a local order wire channel for voice communication between regenerators

F1 User Channel
This byte is set aside for the users purposes

D1 to D3 Data Communication Channel


These three bytes form a 192 kbps DCC for Operation & management of the SDH System
Network management system sends / receives provisioning, security, status / control alarm and performance monitoring command / response by way of DCC

Multiplex Section Overhead B2 Bit Interleaved parity (BIP 24)

This is used to determine if a transmission error has occurred over a multiplex section. It is even parity, and is calculated over all bits of the MS Overhead and the STM-N frame (except the regenerator section) of the previous STM-N frame before scrambling
The value is placed in the three B2 bytes of the MS Overhead before scrambling. These bytes are provided for all STM-1 signals in an STM-N signal

K1 & K2 Multiplex Section Protection

These two bytes are used for MSP signaling between multiplex

level entities for bi-directional automatic protection switching and for communicating Alarm Indication Signal (AIS) and Remote Defect Indication (RDI) conditions. D4 to D12 Data Communication Channel These nine bytes form a 576 kbps DCC for Operation & management of the multiplexers on a SDH line. Network management system sends / receives provisioning, security, status / control alarm and performance monitoring command / response by way of DCC.

E2 Engineering Order wire This byte is allocated to be used as a local order wire channel for voice communication between multiplexers This byte is not accessible at the regenerators

M1 Remote Error indication It is used to indicate the MS layer remote error indication (MS-REI)

S1 Synchronization status message byte (SSMB)

Bits 5 to 8 of this S1 byte are used to carry the


synchronization messages
0000 0010 0100 1000 1011 1111 Quality unknown (existing sync. network) G.811 PRC (Primary Reference Clock) G.812 transit SSU-A (Synchronisation Supply Unit - A) G.812 local SSU-B (Synchronisation Supply Unit B) G.813 Option 1 SEC (Synchronous Equipment Timing Clock) Do not use for synchronization. This message may be emulated by equipment failures and will be emulated by a Multiplex Section AIS signal.

Path Overhead
J1- Path trace
Starting point of VC It is used to transmit repetitively a path access point identifier, similar to J0

B3 Path Bit Interleaved Parity BIP- 8


Error Monitoring over the previous VC-4 frame. Even parity is used to monitor path errors

C2 Signal Label
It is defined to indicate the composition or the maintenance of the VC-4

G1- Path status

It is defined to send back the path status and performance to where the path is generated

F2,F3 Path User Channels


It is assigned for user communication purposes between path elements by the network operator

H4 Multi frame Indicator


H4 byte provides the multiframe information

K3 Automatic protection switching(APS) channel


(b1-b4) are assigned for APS signaling for protection at the VC-4/3 path labels

N1 Network operator Byte

The tandem connection monitoring function is currently not used

THANK YOU