MANAGEMENT FUNDAMENTALS EMBA- 505

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Course Content & Guidelines

Management content.doc

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Organization

Organization: A group of people working together in a structured and coordinated fashion to achieve a set of goals (profit, discovery of knowledge, social satisfaction).

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Management

Management:  Knowing exactly what you want (workers) to do, and then seeing that they do it in the best and cheapest way. (Frederick Taylor)  Management is essentially an act of getting things done through the efforts of other people. (L. Appley)  Management is what a manager does. ( L. A. Allen)

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Continued…

Management: A set of activities (including planning and decision making, organizing, leading, and controlling) directed at an organization’s resources (human, financial, physical, and information), with the aim of achieving organizational goals in an efficient and effective manner

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Basic Purpose of Management EFFICIENTLY
Using resources wisely and in a cost-effective way
(Example: Toyota produces high quality product at relatively low costs is efficient)

And

EFFECTIVELY
Making the right decisions and successfully implementing them
(Example: Toyota Produces stylish and designed cars that inspire consumer confidence)
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Management in Organization

Planning and decision making Inputs from the environment • Human resources • Financial resources • Physical resources • Information resources Controlling

Organizing

Goals attained • Efficiently • Effectively

Leading

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Manager

Manager is someone whose primary responsibility is to carry out the management process.

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The Management Process
Planning and Decision Making
Setting the organization ’s goals and deciding how best to achieve them

Organizing
Determining how best to group activities and resources

and correcting ongoing activities to facilitate goal attainment

Controlling Monitoring

Motivating members of the organization to work in the best interests of the organization

Leading

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Continued…

Planning: setting an organization’s goals and deciding how best to achieve them. Decision making: part of the planning process that involves selecting a course of action from a set of alternatives

 

Setting an organization’s goals and selecting a course of action from a set of alternatives. Decision making is the part of planning. Serving as guides for future activities Helps managers know how to allocate their time and resources

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Continued…

Organizing: grouping activities and resources in a logical fashion

Determining how activities and resources are grouped. Job design, departmentalization, authority, line and staff role

Leading: the set of processes used to get members of the organization to work together to further the interest of the organization.

Understanding basic individual and interpersonal process
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Continued…

Controlling: Monitoring organizational progress toward goal attainment.

setting standard, evaluating performance and making corrections in case of deviations

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Kinds of Managers by Level and Area
Levels of Management
Top managers

Middle managers

First-line managers

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Areas of Management
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Kinds of Managers by level

Top Managers

The relatively small group of executives who manage the organization’s overall goals, strategy, and operating policies. Largest group of managers in organizations who are primarily responsible for implementing the policies and plans of top managers. They supervise and coordinate the activities of lower-level managers. Managers who supervise and coordinate the activities of operating employees.

Middle Managers

First-Line Managers

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Kinds of Managers by Areas

Marketing Managers

Work in areas related to getting consumers and clients to buy the organization’s products or services. Deal primarily with an organization’s financial resources. (accounting, investment, cash management) Concerned with creating and managing the systems that create organization’s products and services.
(production control, inventory, quality, plan layout site selection

Financial Managers

Operations Managers

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Continued…

Human Resource Managers

Involved in human resource planning, recruiting and selection, training and development, designing compensation and benefit systems, formulating performance appraisal systems. Generalists who are familiar with all functional areas of management and who are not associated with any particular management specialty. Specialized managerial positions directly related to the needs of the organization.

Administrative Managers

Other Kinds of Managers

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Basic Managerial Roles (REF: Henry Mintzberg)
            

Interpersonal Roles Figurehead (Visitor to dinner, Ribbon cutting) Leader (Hiring, training, encouraging employee) Liaison (coordinating between people, groups, or organisation) Informational Roles Monitor (Scanning industry reports) Disseminator (transmitting information) Spokesperson (out side the unit or org) Decisional Roles Entrepreneur (Developing new idea) Disturbance handler (Resolving conflict) Resource allocator (Distribution of resources) Negotiator (Supplier and labor union)

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Managerial Skills

Technical Skills Interpersonal Skills Conceptual Skills Diagnostic Skills

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Management Skill Mixes at Different levels of Org.

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Scope of Management

Profit Seeking  Large Business  Small and Start-up business  International Management Not for Profit  Government Org  Educational Org  Healthcare Facilities  Management in Non-traditional Setting

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Perspectives of Management

 

 

Classical Perspective  Scientific Management  Administrative Management Behavioral Perspective Quantitative Management Perspective  Management science  Operations management The Systems Approach The Contingency Approach
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Classical Management Perspective

Scientific Management (Frederick Taylor,1856–1915)

Concerned with improving the performance of individual workers (i.e., efficiency). Grew out of the industrial revolution’s labour shortage at the beginning of the twentieth century. Replaced old methods of how to do work with scientificallybased work methods to eliminate “soldiering,” Believed in selecting, training, teaching, and developing workers. Used time studies of jobs, piece-work pay systems to control and motivate employees. Treat people mechanistically

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Continued…

1 Develop a science for each element of the job to replace old rule-of-thumb methods

2 Scientifically select employees and then train them to do the job as described in step 1

3 Supervise employees to make sure they follow the prescribed methods for performing their jobs

4 Continue to plan the work, but use workers to get the work done

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Figure 23 1.3

Continued…

Administrative Management

 

A theory that focuses on managing the total organization. Henri Fayol (1841 -1925) was the pioneer Identification of the specific management functions planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. Also introduced 14 principles of management

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Continued…
     

Division of labour Authority Discipline Unity of Command Unity of Direction Subordination of individuals to the common good Remuneration

Centralization  Scalar Chain  Order  Equity  Stability  Initiative  Esprit de corps [details: table 2.1]

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Behavioral Perspective
  

 

Emphasizes individual attitudes and behaviors, and group processes Elton Mayo one of the pioneers was popular for the Hawthorne study Resulted in human relations movement i.e. the workers respond to the social context of the workforce Consequence was the development of field like Organizational behavior, industrial psychology Provided important insights into motivation, group dynamics, and other interpersonal processes in organization
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Quantitative Management Perspective
 

Applies quantitative techniques to management Two branches of this approach are
 

Management science Operations Management

Management science focuses on the development of mathematical models Operations management concerns with helping the org. more efficiently produce its products or services Cannot predict or fully explain human behavior in org.
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The Systems & The Contingency Approaches

Systems Approach  Considers the management of org. as a system consisting of variety of dynamic elements.  Assumes an input – transformation - output – feedback process in management Contingency Approach  Suggests that appropriate managerial behavior in a given situation depends on or is contingent on, a wide variety of elements

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Thank You

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