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Granil & Baldivicio

Decision to go to Spain

After finishing the fourth year of his medical course, Rizal decided to go to study in Spain. His elder brother readily approved his going to Spain and so did his two sisters Saturnina (Neneng) and Lucia. Rizal, however, did not seek his parents’ permission and blessings to go abroad, because he knew that they, especially his mother, would disapprove it.

Secret Mission
 1. 2. 3. 4.

To observe keenly the following: life and culture languages and customs industries and commerce governments and laws of the European nations.

Rizal departed on May 3. 1882 boarded the Salvadora with the following route: Manila – Singapore – Colombo – through the Suez Canal – Naples and Marseiles – Barcelona.Departure for Spain    Rizal’s departure was kept secret to avoid detection by the Spanish authorities and the friars The kind Jesuit priests gave him letters of recommendations to members of their Society in Barcelona. .

and his sisters. Saturnina gave him a diamond ring An allowance of P35 per month was promised by Paciano through Uncle Antonio Rizal used a passport named Jose Mercado .Departure for Spain     Only Uncle Antonio Rivera. Paciano. Paciano gave him P700. and some close friends knew of his departure.

Singapore       During his voyage he observed the people and things around him and compared them with those in the Philippines. a French steamer bound to Europe . He was the only Filipino on board. He transferd to Djemnah. Rizal saw Singapore and was impressed by its progress and beautiful sights He admired the confidence of the natives of Singapore with their government Rizal stayed at Hotel de Paz for his two day stop over at singapore.

enjoyed and was thrilled by the historic waterway . Rizal was sea sick On June 2 he arrived at the terminal of Suez Canal. The trip was difficult because of a stormy weather. that afternoon they sailed and docked at Colombo Ceylon The steamer crossed the Indian Ocean to Cafe Guardafui in Africa.First trip to Suez Canal      Djemnah was larger and cleaner than the Salvadora He tried to speak french After a week he reached Point de Galle.

the hero in The Count of Monte Cristo was imprisoned. June 11. where Dantes. and its panoramic beauty Night of June 12. the steamer docked at the French harbor of Marsielles He visited the Chateau d’If. This Italian City pleased him because of its business activity. He stayed three days in Marseilles. Rizal reached Naples. its lively people.Naples and Marseilles      Djemnah proceeded to Europe. enjoying .

and its people were open-hearted. welcomed Rizal. They threw a party for Rizal at their favorite café in Plaza de Cataluna. With an atmoshpere of freedom and liberalism. The Filipinos in Barcelona. Rizal found Barcelona to be a great city. some of whom were his schoolmates in Ateneo.Barcelona     At Marseilles. Rizal took the train to Barcelona Rizal reached his destination – Barcelona on June 16. . hospitable and courageous. 1882.

. 1882.Amor Patrio     In Barcelona. Rizal wrote a nationalistic essay entitled “Amor Patrio” (Love of Country). the Diariong Tagalog on August 20. publisher of the first bilingual newspaper in Manila. Basilio Teodoro Moran. (Spanish and Tagalog) He wrote this essay using the pen name Laong Laan. He wrote this essay on the request of his friend. The essay caused quite a stir among the readers in the Philippines.

. conratulated Rizal for the article and requested him for more article. In response to his request. he wrote his second article Los Viajes (Travels) His third ariticle was Revisita de Madrid (Review of Madrid).Los Viajes and Revisita de Madrid    The Editor of Diarong Tagalog. Unfortunately. Francisco Calvo. it was returned to him because the Diarong Tagalog had ceased publication.

On a letter he received from Paciano dated September 15. Cecilio) telling how Leonor Rivera was getting thinner because of the absence of a love one . 1882. praying to God to stop the dreadful epidemic Another sad news he received was from Chengoy (Jose M. the Calamba folks were having afternoon novenas and nocturnal procession.Rizal Moves to Madrid    Rizal received a sad news about the cholera that was ravaging Manila and the provinces.

Rizal also took painting and sculpture at the Academy of Fine Arts of San Carlos . At Madrid he enrolled at the Universidad Central de Madrid (Central University of Madrid) on November 3.Madrid     Upon Paciano’s advise. Aside from his studies. the capital of Spain. 1882 There he took two courses: Medicine and Philosophy and Letters. Rizal left Barcelona in the fall of 1882 and established himself in Madrid.

lodging. He lived frugally. and English. His only “vice” was taking part in the Madrid Lottery. German. and books. spending his money only on food.Madrid     Rizal also took private lessons in French. He spends his leisure time reading and writing at his boarding house. . attending reunions with fellow Filipino students and practicing fencing and shooting. Rizal led a Spartan life in Madrid. clothing.

Complete Works of Voltaire Complete Works of Horace Complete Works of C.S.Madrid  Amongst Rizal’s collection of books are: Bible Hebrew Grammar Lives of the Presidents of the U. Bernard History of the French Revolution The Wandering Jew Ancient Poetry .

Madrid Works of Thucydides The Byzantine Empire The Characters by La Bruyere The Renaissance Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe Works of Alexander Dumas Louis XIV and His Court .

De la Torre. Rizal was attracted by Consuelo’s beauty and vivacity. Don Pablo was a former city mayor of Manila during the administration of the liberal governor general Carlos Ma.Consuelo Ortiga y Perez    During Rizal’s stay in Madrid. he would frequently visit the home of Don Pablo Ortiga y Rey who lived with his son Rafael and daughter Consuelo. .O. to express his admiration for her. y P. As he made a poem entitled A La Senorita C.

Eduardo de Lete was madly in love with Consuelo.Consuelo Ortiga y Perez  Rizal. however. backed out from his romance with Consuelo because (1) he was still engaged with Leonor Rivera and (2) his friend and co-worker in the Propaganda Movement. .

Circulo Hispano-Filipino   Shortly after arriving in Madrid in 1882. Rizal joined the Circulo Hispano-Filipino. a society of liberal Spaniards and Filipinos. As a member of this society Rizal wrote a poem entitled “Me Piden Versos” (They ask me for Verses) .

. In March 1883. Amongst them were prominent and intellectual Spaniards. The Spanish Masons openly and freely criticized the government policies and particularly lambasted the friars. His Masonic name was Dimasalang Later he transferred to Lodge Solidaridad where he became a Master Mason.Masonry     Freemasonry or the Masons. Rizal joined the Masonic lodge called Acacia in Madrid. were a secret society composed of liberal and republican Spaniards in Spain.

Manuel Becerra. Miguel Morayta. and Juan Zorilla.Masonry   Rizal joined Freemasonry to secure their aid in the fight against the Friars in the Philippines. Francisco Pi y Margal. journalist and member of the Spanish Cortes. . included. parliamentarian and head of the Republican Progressive Party. statesman and professor. journalist and former President of the short-lived First Spanish Republic. Emilio Junoy. Amongst the prominent members of the Masons. Minister of Ultramar.

Masonry    Two reasons why he became a Mason: The bad friars in the Philippines unworthy of their priestly habit or calling He needed the help of the Masons to fight the bad friars in the Philippines. (it was a shield to use in his fight against the evil forces of tyranny) .

Financial Worries    Because of drought and locust the harvest of rice and sugarcane failed in Calamba. The manager of the Dominican-owned hacienda increased the rentals of the lands cultivated by the Rizal family Due to this the monthly allowances of Rizal in Madrid were late in arrival and there were times when they never arrived. .

1884 because Rizal was broke. . in the evening. He attended his class in the university with an empty stomach.Financial Worries     On June 24. where Rizal was able to eat dinner. Rizal even participated in a Greek language contest and won the gold medal. Fortunately. Rizal was the guest speaker at banquet held in honor of Juan Luna and Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo. he was unable to eat his meals for the day.

with his Spoliarium won the first prize. .Juan Luna.

.Felix Resurreccion Hidalgo won the second prize with his Christian Virgins Exposed to the Populace.

“Genius knows no country.” . saluted Luna and Hidalgo as two glories for Spain and the Philippines. he said genius is universal. genius is like light. whose artistic achievements transcended geographical frontiers and racial origins. genius sprouts everwhere. like God.Salute to Luna and Hidalgo   Rizal in his speech. In Rizal’s speech. air. like life. cosmopolitan like space. the patrimony of everybody.

1884 .Student Demonstrations  Rizal Involved in the Student Demonstration “ Freedom of Science and Teacher” Don Miguel Morayta – Professor of History – such liberal view was condemned by the Catholic Bishops and promptly excommunicated Dr. . Morayta and those who applauded the speech.Recounting the tumultuous rioting to his family in an open letter dated November 26.

Student Demonstrations   Bloody fights raged in the university buildings and in the city streets. . and fists. fought the government forces. Rizal and other Filipinos did not received even a cane blow. Fortunately. The students armed with clubs. nor taken prisoner. nor arrested. stones.

Paid the corresponding fees .Completion of Studies  Studies Completed in Spain - - - - Was conferred the degree of Licentiate in Medicine by the University on June 21.he was not awarded the Doctor’s Diploma Also finished his studies in Philosophy and Letters with the rating of “Excellent” HE did not bother to secure post graduate degree – “I . That he did not present the thesis required for graduation 2. 1884 The next academic year studied and passed all the subjects leading to the degree of the Doctor of Medicine – however: 1.