Image Classification using multi-spectral and multi-temporal satellite data

Project by:
Mr. Vinod Jadhav Ms. Deepali Gadkari Ms. Sangita Warade

Approach
 Introduction  Aims & objects  Methodology  Observations & Results  Conclusion

Introduction
 The project is divided in two parts:
– Image classification – Change detection

Introduction

Image Classification
 It is replacement of visual analysis of the image data with quantitative techniques for automating the identification of features in a scene. It categorizes all pixels in an image into land cover classes. It distinguishes as supervised and unsupervised classification.

 

Introduction

Image Classification
 In supervised the image analyst supervises the pixel categorization process by specifying training areas. In unsupervised the image data are first classified by aggregating them into the natural spectral groupings, or clusters, present in scene.

Introduction

Change Detection

– –

Change Detection involves the use of multitemporal data sets to
discriminate areas of land cover change between dates of imaging. Change in identify crop health pattern

Aims & objects
 Supervised and unsupervised classification of multi-spectral data for land-use mapping  To decide which classifier is better for Landuse / Landcover mapping
– By comparing statistical area – By pixel-by-pixel comparison

 Change detection by using multi-temporal data

Study Area
Area of interest:
–Location: Part of Patna, Gaya and Aurangabad

Districts of Bihar

Patna Town

Study Area FCC
IRS-1D LISS-III
February-2002

Son River

Hills

Methodology
 Image classification by applying Supervised & Unsupervised methods  Supervised Classification
– Subsetted LISS-III image – Image enhancement – Collection of training sets – Applications of different classifiers
• Minimum Distance • Maximum Likelihood

Methodology
 Quantitative Expressions of category separation
 Signature Separability  Scatter Plots  Area  PCT values  Confusion matrix

 Application (Running) of Classification

Methodology
 Unsupervised Classification
– Defining number of classes – Applications of K-mean classifier

Source of Data
A) Image Classification: Satellite: Sensor: IRS-1D LISS-III 23.5 meters

Spatial Resolution: Spectral Resolution:

• Green: 0.52-0.59mm • Red: 0.62 - 0.86 mm • Near Infrared: 0.77 - 0.86 mm • Middle Infrared: 1.55 - 1.70 mm

Date of image: February 2002

Source of Data
B) Change Detection: Satellite: Sensor: IRS-1D WiFS 188 meters

Spatial Resolution: Spectral Resolution:
• Red:

0.62 - 0.86 mm

• Near Infrared: 0.77 - 0.86 mm

Dates of image: • January 2000 • February 2000

Software
 Geomatica 8.2.1
– Focus – PCI Modeler – OrthoEngine Core

Classifications
 Unsupervised Classification
– K-mean Classification (5,10,15,20 Classes) – Fuzzy – ISODATA

 Supervised Classification
– Maximum Likelihood Classifier – Minimum Distance Classifier

Unsupervised –5 Classes

Unsupervised –10 Classes

Unsupervised –15 Classes

Unsupervised –20 Classes

Unsupervised –Fuzzy

Unsupervised –ISODATA

Unsupervised: 12 Classes

Unsupervised: 6 Classes(Aggregated)

Supervised Classification
 Classes (Training sites)
– – – – – – –

Agriculture-1 Agriculture-2 River Sand Fallow Land Hills Settlement

Supervised –Min Distance

Supervised –Max Likelihood

Supervised –Parallepiped

Supervised –Parallepiped with Tie breaker

Parameters used for Classification Interpretation
 Scatterplot  Signature Separability  Area  PCT values  Confusion matrix

Scatter Plot: Minimum distance classification with default threshold

Agriculture2 Sand

Hills

Fallow Land Settlements

River

Scatter Plot: Minimum distance classification while applying threshold

Fallow Land Settlements

Scatter Plot: Minimum distance classification after applying threshold

Agriculture2 Sand

Hills Fallow Land Settlements

River

Signature Separability: Minimum distance classification

Minimum Distance Classification: Pixel distribution

Name Agriculture-1 Agriculture-2 River Sand Settlements Fallow Land Hills NULL

Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 Total

Pixels 0 1639264 44893 81202 711024 2508629 101088 0 5086100

Image 0.00 32.23 0.88 1.60 13.98 49.32 1.99 0.00 100.00

Thres 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

Bias 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

Minimum Distance Classification: Confusion Matrix
Name Code Pixels 2 3 4 5 6 7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------Agriculture-2 River Sand Settlements Fallow Land Hills 2 3 4 5 6 7 583 837 999 1080 676 578 99.31 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 83.03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.63 98.80 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 13.14 1.20 92.96 0.69 0.12 0.00 5.46 0.00 1.08 0.00 1.57 19.23 64.71

11.83 68.93 21.28 14.01

Average accuracy = 84.63 Overall accuracy = 86.37

KAPPA COEFFICIENT = 0.83360 Standard Deviation = 0.00605 Confidence Level : 99 +/- 0.01560 95 +/- 0.01185 90 +/- 0.00995

Scatter Plot: Maximum Likelihood Classification with default threshold

Agriculture2 Sand Hills River Fallow Land Settlements

Scatter Plot: Maximum Likelihood Classification while applying threshold values

Fallow Land Settlements

Scatter Plot: Maximum Likelihood Classification after applying threshold

Agriculture2 Hills

Sand

Fallow Land Settlements

River

Signature Separability: Maximum Likelihood classification

Maximum Likelihood Classification: Pixel Distribution
Name Agriculture-1 Agriculture-2 River Sand Settlements Fallow Land Hills NULL Total Code 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 5086100 100.00 Pixels 3396814 632902 35026 40182 142596 746469 92111 0 Image 66.79 12.44 0.69 0.79 2.80 14.68 1.81 0.00 Thres 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 Bias 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00

Maximum Likelihood Classification: Confusion Matrix
Name Code Pixels 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -------------------------------------------------------------------------Agriculture-2 River Sand Settlements Fallow Land Hills 2 3 4 5 6 7 583 837 999 1080 676 578 7.55 14.22 5.91 5.19 2.81 4.67 92.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 85.78 0.00 0.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 94.09 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 90.09 0.74 1.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.94 83.58 6.23 0.00 0.00 0.00 2.13 12.87 87.20

Average accuracy = 88.87 Overall accuracy = 89.19

KAPPA COEFFICIENT = 0.87065 Standard Deviation = 0.00530

Confidence Level : 99 +/- 0.01367 95 +/- 0.01038 90 +/- 0.00871

Scatter Plot: Maximum Likelihood Classification with default threshold values

Agriculture2 Hills Sand

Fallow Land Settlements

River

Scatter Plot: Maximum Likelihood Classification while applying threshold

Fallow Land Settlements

Scatter Plot: Maximum Likelihood Classification after applying threshold

Agriculture2 Hills

Sand

Fallow Land Settlements

River

Signature Separability: Maximum Likelihood classification

Comparison of Maximum Likelihood & Minimum Distance classification

Pixel-by-pixel Method

Comparison of Maximum Likelihood & Minimum Distance classification

Pixel-by-pixel Method

Area wise Comparison of classifications
(In %)
Supervised Unsupervised Max. Likelihood Min. Distance K-Means Agriculture-1 66.79 0 49.04 Agriculture-2 12.44 32.23 20.30 River 0.69 0.88 1.43 Sand 0.79 1.6 0.47 Settlements 2.8 13.98 7.73 Fallow Land 14.68 49.32 12.29 Hills 1.81 1.99 8.74

Observations
 Area under each class is another criteria to compare two classifiers and two classification schemes.

Conclusion
 MXL gives better results than Min.Dist.  Supervised Classification is giving better results than Unsupervised classification  Settlements,Hills and Fallow land are the classes with close reflectance patterns.  Band combination,threshold value, bias and tolerance are of critical importance for Separability of closely resembling classes.

Change Detection
WiFS-Image1 - NIR WiFS-Image1 - R  NDVI-1 = (NIR-R) / (NIR+R) WiFS-Image2 - NIR WiFS-Image2 - R  NDVI-2 = (NIR-R) / (NIR+R)  Image Subtraction = (NDVI-1) - (NDVI-2)

Modeler for NDVI of image-1 & image- 2
NDVI = (Near Infra Red – Red) / (Near Infra Red + Red)

Resultant of image-1: NDVI-1

Resultant of image-2: NDVI-2

Modeler for Change Detection

Resultant of image-1:(NDVI-1) – (NDVI-2)

Classified (NDVI-1) – (NDVI-2)

Statistics (NDVI-1) – (NDVI-2) (Feb., 2000 – Jan. 2000)
Classification Algorithm: K-Means Unsupervised Classification Input Channels: 1 Classification Result Channel: 2 Number of Clusters: 5 Cluster ( 1) ( 2) ( 3) ( 4) ( 5) Pixels 26280 125943 261951 Mean Position Std Dev -0.10982 0.04669 0.15975 0.26006 0.38541 0.07458 0.03788 0.03032 0.03207 0.04524

254666 156760 -----------Total 825600

Observations & Results
 Differences in NDVIs ranges from – 0.109 to 0.385  96.82% area is classified under positive values.  3.18% area is classified under negative values. i.e. crop was having peak vegetative growth in the month of Jan. and reached maturity in the month of Feb.

Conclusion
 NDVI of multi-date satellite data may be used to separate different crops / crop growth stages.

Thank You !

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