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Instrument transformers Too high current, measurement, protection ONLY AC currents No effect on main circuit Symbol
proportional to current measured in primary Reduce high currents(thousands) to lower value(5 or 1 amp) Convenient .Monitoring actual current in an AC TL using a standard ammeter • secondary current ranges from 1 to 5 amps .Theory of Operation • • • • • Ideal No different Produce Iac in sec.
Has a large CSA so that the magnetic flux density is low Using much smaller CSA wire. depending upon how much the current must be stepped down.Construction • Unlike VT or PT • Primary – Only one or very few turns – primary wire size > secondary wire size • Secondary – – – – Large number of coil turns Wound on a laminated core of low-loss magnetic material. – Number of 2ndry turns is multiple of the 1ry turns .
Equivalent Circuit .
Equivalent Exact circuit equations: • S: For Secondary P: For Primary .
no leakage • Bar-type current transformers – Bus bar – Single turn – Insulated against high voltage – Uniform Sec. winding. T class i.Types of CTs • Wound current transformers – – – – Primary winding Turns ratio Insulation. winding. no leakage .e not accurate • Toroidal current transformers – No primary windings – Threaded line – Split core – Uniform Sec. winding. non uniform Sec. leakage.
wrong measurement • Toroidal current transformers – Arrow. S2 out . P2 load • arrow to load – Secondary • S1 & S2/X1 & X2 • S1 current in.CT Polarity • Polarised • Bar-Type – Primary • P1& P2/H1 & H2 • P1 generator. S2 out • connect correctly. Current direction – S1 current in.
CT Polarity • Wound CT – Gen P1. S2 out . Load P2 – S1 current in.
Current transformer cores • High precision current transformers request soft magnetic cores with ideally – – – – high saturation high permeability low remanence Good temperature stability .
not normal in normal loads Reasonable accuracy.Classification ANSI/IEEE Accuracy Classes Depends on Application o Metering accuracy CT Very high accuracy.g. from FL to LL values e. large capacity revenue billing CTs o Relaying accuracy CT Supply protective relays Relays. fault and high overload. 20 Ifl .
4%. + 1. 0. 0.For Burdens (Loads) of: 0.2.5.Classification ANSI/IEEE Accuracy Classes: 1.0. 0. 1. . .5.Which equals 2.Metering accuracy CT . + 0.Available in Maximum Ratio Error Classes of: + 0.3% . 45 volt-amperes ( va ) . 5.6% .1. 22-1/2.9.2%. 12.8 ohms. +2.
Will support burdens of: 0.0.bar-type units . 4. 100. 2. 8. 200.donut units .1.0. . 400. 50. 1. 800.Classification • • • • 2.Relaying Accuracy CT’s Class C (Calculated) is low leakage reactance type .Formerly Class H ( H for High Leakage) Available secondary voltages: 10. 0.Formerly Class L ( L for Low Leakage) Class T (Tested) is high leakage reactance type .0 ohms.0.2.
5 – 15 – 20 – 25 – 30 – 40 – 50 – 60 – 75 A and their decimal multiple or fractions – Underlined are preferred • Secondary: – 1. 3 . 2 and 5 A – 5 A is preferred – Delta.Classification IEC-60044-1 • Primary: – 10 – 12.
iii.CT selection • • • • Ratio Selection Relay Step Tap Secondary Burden Calculation Determining CT performance with ANSI / IEEE i. ii. T class CT C class CT C Class CT with CT performance curves .
Ratio Selection a. For CT and the connected equipments Thermal effect of system Thermal limit Common 5A CTs Pick up Secondary current less than 5A 2. Relay Step Tap Minimum pick up and operational current values of the relay – – Should be higher than load Calculate margin above load between load and relay (according to Relay characteristics and types • 3. electromagnetic) • Solid state: low resistance – mainly constant with Current variation • Electromagnetic: resistance varies with current variation . .1. d. c. b.Secondary Burden Calculation Calculate Burden impedance – – Relay Impedance Lead impedance • Depends on relay type (Solid state.
Determining CT performance with ANSI / IEEE • – – With T class CT: Performance curve Match and pick corresponding impedance to the needed conditions .4.
Current and CT ratio) Match the desired condition to get the missing parameter from curve .4.Determining CT performance with ANSI / IEEE – – Performance curves (Voltage.
CT Ratings • • • • • • • Rated primary voltage (V) Rated secondary voltage (V) Rated frequency (HZ) Rated output of CT (VA) Rated output of PT (VA) Accuracy class Rated insulation level KV .
m) in the medium (air or iron core) in the coil H = Magnetic field strength • • .Magnetic Saturation Magnetic field strength H (A/m) in the coil is given by: I = Current through the coil in Amperes (A) n = Number of turns in the coil L = Total circumference of the peripheral coil • • • Induced Magnetic flux density B ( in Wb/m2 or Tesla) is given by: μ = Magnetic permeability in (Wb/A.
Set high primary currents to default value. In short circuit conditions InP max lasts for up to 1 to 3 sec. Maximum voltage for each winding is dependent on core material and diameter. Secondary is almost shorted and operated far from max tension / saturation. Winding insulation is only rated for a 2 kV peak voltage! . An open winding leads to a very hot and dangerous voltage and causes magnetic saturation. usually 1 A or 5 A.CT features • • • • • • A primary winding (usually a cable or other conductors by toroidal).
for multi-ratio CTs .Accuracy • accuracy depends on some factors: o Burden o Burden class/saturation class o Rating factor o Load o External electromagnetic fields o Temperature o Physical configuration o The selected tap.
Applications • • • Metering Protective Relays Electrical Power Industry .
c Why? Low current.). arc. relays.e.Cautions • CT secondary short circuited o o Unless connected burden (i. etc. damage CT . Secondary must be s. meters. HV at terminals.
Thank You .
1073741826.php?fbid=10200915737280017&set=a.abb.com/product/db0003db002618/bb12a5314453ed00c12579ca00 4701fc.html .com/prod/chint-electric-co-ltd/three-phase-currenttransformers-69106-585255.References • • • • • • • http://www.102009 15530994860.nsf/veritydisplay/cb9b52d0823be86 6c125798400459d13/$file/ABB-DTR%20current%20transformers%20EN%201101a.aspx http://www.pdf http://www.facebook.com/global/scot/scot235.1362938322&type=1&theater file://localhost/C:/Users/reem/Downloads/Desktop/arvind_srinivasan.abb.directindustry.com/technical_references/ http://www.idc-online.asp?pid=28351 http://www05.pdf http://www.butlerwinding.com/photo.com/store.