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Multi-protocol Label Switching

-Presented By Ayan Kumar Roy Roll No. 05IT6020 M. Tech (IT), I.I.T, KGP School of Information Technology Under Guidance of Dr. S.K.Ghosh

MPLS Introduction
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Motivation MPLS Basics Components and Protocols Operation Advantages and Disadvantages

Motivation

IP
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The first defined and used protocol De facto the only protocol for global Internet working

… but there are disadvantages

Do not take into account additional metrics .Slower than Switching  Usually designed to obtain shortest path . no QoS  Each router has to make independent forwarding decisions based on the IP-address  Large IP Header .e.Motivation (cont.)  IP Routing disadvantages  Connectionless .g.At least 20 bytes  Routing in Network Layer .

data. video) … but there are also disadvantages .Supports QoS fast packet switching with fixed length packets (cells) integration of different traffic types (voice.Motivation (cont.)  ATM    connection oriented .

)  ATM disadvantages    Complex Expensive Not widely adopted .Motivation (cont.

Motivation (cont.)  Idea: Combine the forwarding algorithm used in ATM with IP. .

MPLS Introduction      Motivation MPLS Basics Components and Protocols Operation Advantages and Disadvantages .

MPLS Basics  Multi Protocol Label Switching is arranged between Layer 2 and Layer 3 .

or even flows among different applications.MPLS Basics (cont. and frame-relay Layer 2 protocols.  Is independent of Layer-2 and Layer-3 protocols  Maps IP-addresses to fixed length labels  Interfaces to existing routing protocols (such as RSVP. ATM.)  MPLS Characteristics  Mechanisms to manage traffic flows of various granularities (Flow Management) such as flows among different hardware. OSPF)  supports the IP. . machines.

MPLS Introduction      Motivation MPLS Basics MPLS Components and Protocols MPLS Operation Advantages and Disadvantages .

Label Edge Router . and Ethernet). ATM. .LER   Resides at the edge of an MPLS network and assigns and removes the labels from the packets. Support multiple ports connected to dissimilar networks (such as frame relay.

ATM switches can be used as LSRs without changing their hardware.LSR   Is a high speed router in the core on an MPLS network. Label switching is equivalent to VP/VC switching.Label Switching Router . .

Position of LERs and LSRs .

such as an ATM VPI/VCI or a Frame Relay DLCI. fixed-length value carried in the packet's header to identify a forwarding equivalence class (FEC). A label is analogous to a connection identifier. because it has only link-local significance.Label  A label is a short. does not encode information from the network layer header.  . and maps traffic to a specific FEC.

Label  Generic label format .

Label Creation    Topology-based method – uses normal processing of routing protocols (such as OSPF and BGP) Request-based method – uses processing of requestbased control traffic (such as RSVP) Traffic-based method – uses the reception of a packet to trigger the assignment and distribution of a label The topology. while the traffic-based method is an example of data-driven binding .and request-based methods are examples of control-driven label bindings.

IETF has also defined a new protocol known as the label distribution protocol (LDP) for explicit signaling and management .)  Label distribution     MPLS does not specify a single method for label distribution BGP has been enhanced to piggyback the label information within the contents of the protocol RSVP has also been extended to support piggybacked exchange of labels.Label (cont.

Forward Equivalence Class .FEC   Is a representation of a group of packets that share the same requirements for their transport. The assignment of a particular packet to a particular FEC is done just once (when the packet enters the network). .

a path is set up for a given packet to travel based on an FEC.  .Label-Switched Paths LSPs  Within an MPLS domain. The LSP is set up prior to data transmission.

LSRs support any available routing protocols (OSPF. ATM …). The return traffic must take another LSP! .  The LSP setup for an FEC is unidirectional. explicit routing Is similar to source routing.LSP Details  MPLS provides two options to set up an LSP   hop-by-hop routing Each LSR independently selects the next hop for a given FEC. The ingress LER specifies the list of nodes through which the packet traverses.

MPLS Introduction      Motivation MPLS Basics Components and Protocols Operation Advantages and Disadvantages .

MPLS Operation  The following steps must be taken for a data packet to travel through an MPLS domain.      label creation and distribution table creation at each router label-switched path creation label insertion/table lookup packet forwarding .

MPLS Operation Example .

This request will propagate through the network as indicated by the broken green lines. Let LSR1 be the next hop for LER1. LER1 will initiate a label request toward LSR1. it will find the longest address match to find the next hop. .Packet Forwarding  Packet forwarding    LER1 may not have any labels for this packet as it is the first occurrence of this request. In an IP network.

The LSP setup is indicated by the broken blue lines using LDP or any other signaling protocol.  .Packet Forwarding (cont.)    Each intermediary router will receive a label from its downstream router starting from LER4 and going upstream till LER1. All these routers will update their LIB table for this FEC. LER1 will insert the label and forward the packet to LSR1.

Example of LIB Table Input Port 1 2 Incoming Outgoing Output Port Port Label Port Label 3 9 3 1 6 7 .

replace it with the outgoing label and forward it. it will remove the label because the packet is departing from an MPLS domain and deliver it to the destination. . LSR2 and LSR3..Packet Forwarding (cont. will examine the label in the received packet.e. i.)    Each subsequent LSR. The actual data path followed by the packet is indicated by the broken red lines. When the packet reaches LER4.

MPLS Operation Example .

Packet Traversing a Label-Switched Path .

MPLS Introduction      Motivation MPLS Basics Components and Protocols Operation Advantages and Disadvantages .

MPLS Introduction      Motivation Basics Components and Protocols Operation Advantages and Disadvantages .

MPLS Advantages      Improves packet-forwarding performance in the network Supports QoS and CoS for service differentiation Supports network scalability Integrates IP and ATM in the network Builds interoperable networks .

MPLS Disadvantages   An additional layer is added The router has to understand MPLS .

pdf by Mario Ivkovic http://ica1www.iec.org/online/tutorials/mpls.pdf http://www.epfl.at/teaching/03_advanced%2 0computer%20networks/ss2004/vo3/MPLS.iaik.ac.tugraz.References      http://www.pdf .pdf Encyclopedia of Netwoking.pdf Cisco Press-Network Consultants Handbook-by Mathew Castelli.ch/cn2/0304/doc/lecture/mpls.

MPLS Introduction Q&A .

MPLS Introduction Thank you! .