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MEASUREMENT OF GAS BY MULTIPATH ULTRASONIC METER

AGA REPORT NO. 9

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Introduction Terminology Operating Condition Meter Requirement Performance Requirement Individual Meter Testing Requirement Installation Requirement Field Verification Test

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998

1. Introduction
1.1 Scope:
Developed for multipath ultrasonic transit time flow meter.

1.2 Principle of measurement.

The meter measured gas flowrate by measuring transit times of highfrequency sound pulses

The Accuracy of USM depends on several factor, such as:


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Precise geometry of the meter body and ultrasonic transducer location. The integration technique inherent in the design of the meter. The quality of flow profile, levels of pulsation in the flowing gas stream and gas uniformity. The accuracy of the transit times measurement.

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AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998 The Accuracy of transit time measurement depends on:
The electronic clock stability. Consistent detection of sound pulse wave reference position. Proper compensation for signal delays of electronic components and transducers.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998 3. Operating condition: 3.1 Gas quality


The meter shall operate with any of the normal range natural gas composition mixtures specified in AGA Report No. 8. (AGA 8, normal range natural gas mixtures) The manufacturer shall be consulted if any of the following are expected: - Acoustic wave attenuating carbon dioxide level are above 10%. - Operating near the critical density of the natural gas mixtures. - Total sulfur level exceeds 20 grain per 100 cubic feet (320 ppm appox.).

AGA 8, Normal Range natural gas mixtures

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998 3.2 Pressure


The designer shall specify the expected minimum operating pressure as well as maximum operating pressure.

Ultrasonic transducer used in USM require minimum density (a function of pressure) to ensure acoustic coupling of the sound pulse to and from the gas.

3.3 Temperature, Gas and Ambient


The designer shall specify the expected operating gas temperature range.

The USM should operate over a flowing gas temperature range -13o 131o F. And operating ambient air temperature should be -13o 131o F.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998 3.4 Gas Flow Consideration


The flow-rate limits that can be measured by USM are determined by actual velocity of the flowing gas. The designer should determine the expected gas flow rates and verify that these value are within the qmin, qt and qmax are stated by manufacturer.

The designer is cautioned to examine: - Maximum velocity for noise and piping safety. - The direction of flow (Uni-directional or Bi-directional).

3.5 Upstream Piping and Flow Profile


Upstream piping configuration may adversely affect the gas velocity profile entering a USM to such an extent that measurement error occurs.

Further recommendations on upstream piping are provided in section 7.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998 4. Meter Requirement 4.1 Codes and Regulation.
The meter body and other parts shall be designed and constructed of materials suitable for service conditions for which the meter is rated and in accordance with codes and regulations as specified by designer.

4.2 Meter Body


4.2.1 Maximum Operating Pressure
- Meter should be manufactured to meet one of the common pipe flanges. - The maximum design operating pressure of the meter should be the lowest of the max. design operating of the following: meter body, flanges, transducer connections, transducers assembly.

4.2.2 Corrosion Resistance.


All wetted part of the meter shall be manufactured of material compatible with natural gas and related fluids or as specified by the designer.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998


4.2.3 Meter Body Lengths and Bores
- Manufacturer should publish their standard overall face-to-face length of meter body with flanges, for each ANSI flange class and diameter. - The USM bore and the adjacent upstream pipe along with flanges should have the same inside diameter to within 1% of each other. - For bidirectional application, both ends of meter should be considered upstream. - The transducer port should be designed in a way that reduces the possibility of liquids or solids accumulating in the transducer ports. - The meter should be equipped with valves and additional devices, mounted on the transducer in order to make it possible to replace the transducer without depressurizing the meter run. - At least one pressure tap shall be provided for measuring the static pressure in the meter. The meter should be designed in such a way that the body will not roll when resting on a smooth surface with slope of up to 10%.

4.2.4 Ultrasonic Transducer Ports

4.2.5 Pressure Tap

4.2.6 Miscellaneus

4.2.7 Meter Body Marking

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998 4.3 Ultrasonic Transducers.


4.3.1 Specification.
The manufacturer should state the general specification of their ultrasonic transducers, such as critical dimension, max. allowable operating pressure, operating pressure rating, operating temperature range and gas composition limitations.

4.3.2 Rate of Pressure Change.


Clear instruction should be provided by the manufacturer for depressurization and pressurization of the meter during installation, start-up, maintenance and operation.

4.3.3 Exchange
It shall be possible to replace or relocate transducers without a significant change in meter performance.

4.3.4 Transducer Test


Each transducer or a pair of transducers should be tested and documented as part of the USMs quality assurance program.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998 4.4 Electronic


4.4.1 General Requirement.
- The USMs electronic (SPU) systems: power supplies, microcomputer, signal processing components, and ultrasonic excitation circuits, should be housed in one or more enclosure mounted on or next to the meter. - It should be possible to replace the entire SPU or change any field replacement module without significant change in meter performance.

4.4.2 Output Signal Specification.


The SPU should be equipped with at least one of following output: serial data interface, and frequency.

4.4.3 Electronic Safety Design Requirements.


The design of the USM including SPU shoul be analyzed, tested and certified by an applicable laboratory and labelled as approve for operation in NEC class 1, Div. 2, group D Hazardous Area.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998 4.5 Computer Program


4.5.1 Firmware
Computer code, flow calculation constants and operator entered parameters should be stored in nonvolatile memory. The manufacturer should record of all firmware revision and upgrade time to time to improve the performance of the meter. The manufacturer shall notify the operator if the firmware revision will affect the accuracy of flow calibrated meter.

4.5.2 Configuration and Maintenance Software.


The meter should supplied with software, with capability for local or remote configuring of the SPU and for monitoring the operation of the meter.

4.5.3 Inspection and Auditing Functions.


It should be possible for inspector/auditor to view and print the flow measurement configuration parameters used by the SPU, e.g: calibration constant, meter dimension, time averaging period and sampling rate.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998


4.5.4 Alarms
The following alarms-status outputs should be provided in the form of failsafe, dry, relay contact or voltage free solid state switches isolated from ground. - Output invalid: when the indicated flow rate at line conditions is invalid. - (optional) trouble: when any of several monitored parameter fall outside of normal operation. - (optional) partial failure: when one or more of the multiple ultrasonic path is not usable.

4.5.5 Diagnostic Measurement.


The following and other diagnostic measurement should be provided via serial data interface: average flow velocity, velocity of each path, SOS of each path, average SOS, status and measurement quality indicators, alarm and failure indicators.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998 5. Performance Requirement


5.1 General
The performance of all USM shall meet the following: Repeatability: 0.2% for qt qi qmax 0.4% for qmin qi < qt Resolution: 0.003 ft/s (0.001 m/s) Velocity Sampling Interval : 1 second Max Peak-To-Peak Error : - Large Meter Accuracy ( > 12 Nominal) 0.7% for qt qi qmax 1.4% for qmin qi qt - Small Meter Accuracy ( < 12 Nominal) 1% for qt qi qmax 1.4% for qmin qi qt Zero Flow Reading : < 0.040 ft/s (12 mm/s) for each acoustic path.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998


5.2 Pressure, Temperature and Gas Composition Influences
The Ultrasonic meter shall meet the accuracy on 5.1 over full operating pressure, temperature and gas composition range without the need for manual adjustment, unless otherwise stated by the manufacturer. If Ultrasonic meter requires manual input to characterize the flowing gas conditions (e.g gas density and viscosity), the manufacturer shall state the sensitivity of these parameter so that the operator can determine the need to change these parameters as operating condition change.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998


6. Individual Meter Testing Requirements
Prior to shipment, the manufacturer shall perform the following test and checks on each meter:

6.1 Leakage Test After final assembly, the USM shall be leak-tested by manufacturer. The test medium shall be inert gas, such as Nitrogen. The leak test pressure shall be a minimum of 200 psig, maintained for a minimum of 15 minutes with no leak detectable with a non-corrosive liquid solution. 6.2 Dimensional Measurements -Internal diameter of the meter -Length of each acoustic path between transducer face -Axial distance between transducer pair. 6.3 Zero-Flow Verification Test To verify the transit time measurement systems of the meter, the manufacture shall perform a Zero Flow verification test.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998


The zero flow test procedure shall be followed that includes the following elements, at minimum:

a. After blind flange are attached to the end of the meter body, the meter shall be
purged of all air and pressurized with a pure test gas or gas mixture. The selection of test gas shall be the responsibility of the manufacture. However, the acoustic properties of the test gas must be well known and documented. b. The gas pressure and temperature shall be allowed to stabilize at the outset of the test. The gas velocities for each acoustic path shall be recorded for at least 30 seconds. The gas velocity and standard deviation for each acoustic path then be calculated. c. Adjustment to the meter shall be made as necessary to bring the meter performance into compliance with the manufactures specifications and specifications stated in this report.

As part of the test procedure, the manufacture shall document the ultrasonic transducer serial numbers, and their relative locations in the meter. The manufacture shall documented all the parameters used by the meter, e.g.: transducer/electronic transit-time delays, incremental timing corrections, and all acoustic path lengths, angles, diameter and other parameter used in the calculation of gas velocity for each acoustic path. The manufacture shall note if the constants are dependent on specific transducer pair.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998


6.4 Flow Calibration Test If a flow calibration is performed, the following nominal test flow rates are recommended, at a minimum: qmin, 0.1 qmax, 0.25 qmax, 0.4 qmax, 0.7 qmax, and qmax. The designer may require that specific piping configuration and/or flow conditioners be used during flow calibration, understanding that differences in upstream piping configurations may influence meter performance. 6.4.1 Calibration Factor Adjusment If a meter is flow calibrated, the calibration factors should normally be applied to eliminate any indicated meter bias error. Some suggested methods of applying calibration factor are: a. Using flow-weighted mean error (FWME) over the meters expected flow range. b. Using a more sophisticated error correction scheme (e.g.: Multi-point or polynominal algorithm, a piecewise linear interpolation method, etc) over the meters range of flow rates. 6.4.2 Test Report The result of test required insection 6, shall be documented in a written report supplied to the designer or the operator by the manufacturer.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998


For each meter the report shall include, at a minimum: a. The name & address of the manufacturer b. The name & address of the test facility c. The model & Serial Number d. The SPU firmware revision number e. The date of the test f. The name & title of the person(s) who conducted the test. g. A written description of the test procedures h. The upstream & downstream piping configurations i. A diagnostic report of the software configuration parameters j. All test data, including flow rates, pressures, temperatures, gas composition and the measurement uncertainty of the test facility. k. A description of any variations or deviations from the required test conditions.

6.5 Quality Assurance The manufacture shall establish and follow a written comprehensive qualityassurance program for the assembly and testing of the meter and its electronic system.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998


7. Installation Requirement 7.1 Environmental Consideration - Temperature - Vibration - Electrical Noise 7.2 Piping Configuration - Flow Direction - Piping Installation a. Recommend upstream & downstream piping configuration in minimum length, one without a flow conditioner and one with a flow conditioner. The recommendation should be supported by test data b. Specify the maximum allowable flow disturbance (e.g.: the limits on swirl angle, velocity profile asymmetry, turbulence intensity, etc) - Protrusion Change in internal diameter and protrusion should be avoided. The USM bore, Flanges & adjacent upstream pipe should all have the same inside diameter, to within 1 % and be aligned carefully to minimize flow disturbance.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998 - Internal Surface


The internal surface of the USM should be kept clean of any deposits. If a layer of deposits accumulates inside USM, the cross-section area will be reduced, causing corresponding increase in gas velocity and a positive measurement error. Thermowells For uni-directional flow, the designer should have the thermowell installed downstream of the meter. The distance from the dowstream flange face to the thermowell should be between 2D and 5D. The designer is cautioned that high gas velocities may cause flowinduced thermowell vibration. Acoustic noise interference Some pressure-reducing control valves, designed to reduce audible noise, may produce very high level of ultrasonic noise under certain flowing condition. Flow Conditioner Flow conditioner may or may not be necessary, depending on the manufacturers meter design and the severity of any upstream flowprofile disturbance.

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998


Orientation of Meter The designer should consult with the manufacturer to determine if there is a preferred meter orientation for a given upstream piping configuration. Filtration Filtration of the flowing gas is probably not necessary for most application of a USM. However accumulation of deposits should be avoided.

7.3 Associated Flow Computer The USMs output is typically an uncorrected volume (actual volume at line condition). Therefore, an associated flow computer or corrector must be installed by the designer to correct the volume rate and accumulated volume for pressure, temperature and compressibility. 7.3.1 Flow Computer Calculation The necessary calculations are similar to the equations described in AGA 7, and are summarized in the following expression:

Qb Qf .(Pf / Pb).(Tb / Tf ).(Zb / Zf )

AGA REPORT NO. 9 1998


7.4 Maintenance The operator should follow the manufacturers recommendations for maintenance. Periodic maintenance could be as simple as monitoring several CPU diagnostic measurement, such as: signal quality, speed of sound for each acoustic path 8. Field Verification Test The manufacturer should provide a written field verification test procedure to the operator that will allow the USM to be functionally tested to ensure that the meter is operating properly.