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# Multiphase star rectifier

## • For larger (>15kW) output power.

• Harmonics and fundamental component.
• Filter size decreases with the increase of
harmonics.
• Q phase filter has fundamental component
of qf frequency.
• Also known as star rectifier.
• May be considered as q
single-phase half-wave
rectifier.
• K-th diode conducts during the
period when the voltage of k-th
phase is greater than that of
other phases.
• The conduction period of each
diode is 2π/q.
• Primary must be delta
connected to compensate the
dc component flowing through
secondary windings.
Assuming a cosine wave from π/q to 2π/q, the average o/p voltage is.
π /q π /q
2 q q π
Vdc =
2π / q ∫0 m
V cos ωt d (ωt ) = Vm
π
sin ωt
0
= Vm
π
sin
q
..... (1)

## Output rms voltage is,

1/ 2 1/ 2
 2 π /q   q  ω t sin 2ω t  π / q   q  π 1 2π  
Vrms =  ∫0 m ω ω = Vm   + =  + sin  
2
V cos t d ( t )    m V ..... (2)
 2π / q   π  2 4  0   2π q 2 q 

If the load is purely resistive then peak current through the diode is
Im = Vm/R and the rms current through a diode is,
π /q 1/ 2
 2  (Integrating over the whole period, 2π)
Is =  ∫0 I m cos ωt d (ωt )
2 2

 2π 
1/ 2 1/ 2
 1 π 1 2π  V  1 π 1 2π  Vs
I s = Im   + sin  = m   + sin  =
 2π q 2 q  R  2π q 2 q  R

## Vs is the rms voltage of a transformer secondary

Three phase bridge rectifiers
• Full-wave rectifier.
• Gives six-pulse ripples on
the o/p voltage.
• Conduction sequence of
diodes are,
12,23,34,45,56,61.
• The pair of diodes which
are connected between
that pair of supply lines
having the highest line-to-
line instantaneous
voltage will conduct.
• Line to line voltage,
Vij = 3V p
• Average o/p voltage,
2 π /6
Vdc =
2π / 6 ∫0
3Vm cos ωt d (ωt ) (Vm is the peak phase voltage)

3 3
= V =1.654V
π m m

## Rms o/p voltage, π / 6 1/ 2

 2 π / 6 
1/ 2
 6.3  ωt sin 2ωt  
Vrms =  ∫ 3Vm cos ωt d (ωt ) = Vm   +
2 2
 
 2π / 6 0
  π  2 4 0 
1/ 2 1/ 2
18  π / 6 1 2π  18 18 3  3 9 3
= Vm   + sin  = Vm  + .  = Vm  +  = 1.6554Vm

π  2 4 6  12 4π 2   2 4π 

## For purely resistive load, peak diode current, I m = 3Vm / R

1/ 2
π /6
1/ 2
 2  ωt 1  
Rms diode current, I r = 2. 2 
π /6
 2π ∫
0
I m2 cos2 ωt d (ωt )

=   + sin 2ωt  
π  2 4 0 
1/ 2
1 π 1 2π 
= I m   + sin  = 0.5518 I m
π  6 2 6 
Rms value of transformer secondary current,
1/ 2 1/ 2
 4 π /6  4  π 1 2π 
I s = 2.
 2π

0
I m2 cos2 ωt d (ωt )

= Im   + sin
 π  2.6 4 6


1/ 2
 2 π 1 2π 
= I m   + sin  = 0.7804 I m
π  6 2 6 

## Where Im is the peak secondary line current = peak diode current,

I m = 3Vm / R
3-phase bridge rectifier with RL
π 2π
vab = 2Vab sin ωt for ≤ ωt ≤
3 3
di
L + RiL + E = 2Vab sin ωt
dt

2Vab −( R ) t E
iL = sin(ωt − θ ) + A1e L − ... (3 - 81)
Z R

## Where load impedance Z = ( R + (ωL) )  ωL 

1
2 2 2
and load impedance angle θ = tan

 .
 R 
The constant A1 can be found from the initial condition: at ωt = π 3 , i = I .
L 1

2Vab  π  − ( R ) (π ) E
I1 = sin − θ  + A1e L 3ω −
Z 3  R
E 2Vab  π  − ( R ) (π )
I1 + − sin − θ  = A1e L 3ω
R Z 3 
 E 2Vab  π  ( R ) (π )
A1 =  I1 + − sin − θ  e L 3ω
 R Z 3 
2Vab  E 2Vab π  −( R L )t ( R L )(π 3ω) E
iL = sin (ωt −θ ) + I1 + − sin  −θ e e −
Z  R Z  3  R

 ( R L ) 3ω−t  E
 π 
2Vab  E 2Vab π
iL = sin (ωt −θ ) + I1 + − sin  −θ e − . . . (3 - 82)
Z  R Z  3  R

## Under steady-state condition, iL (ωt = 2π / 3) = iL (ωt = π / 3) = I1.

2Vab    L  3ω − 3ω   E  
 R   π 2π   R   π 2π   R   π 2π 
  −  π   −
sin ( ωt − θ ) − sin − θ e
 L   3ω 3ω  L 3ω 3ω  
I1 (1 − e )=  − 1 − e 
Z  3  
 R  
 R  π 2π 
π    − 
sin ( ωt − θ ) − sin − θ e L  3ω 3ω 
2Vab 3  E
I1 =  R   π 2π 

Z   −  R
(1 − e L  3ω 3ω  )
 R  π 
π  −  
sin ( ωt − θ ) − sin − θ e  L  3ω 
2Vab 3  E
I1 =  
R π 
− for I1 ≥ 0 . . . (3 - 83)
Z −   R
(1 − e  L  3ω  )
Which after substituting in eq (3-82) and then simplifying, gives

2Vab 
sin (3
)
2π − θ − sin π − θ   R  π  
 3  −   E
iL =  sin ( ωt − θ ) +  R  π 
e  L  3ω 
 −
Z  −  
 L  3ω   R
 (1 − e ) 
for π/3 ≤ ωt ≤ 2π / 3 and iL ≥ 0 ... (3 - 84)

## Rms diode current can be found from above equation as,

1/ 2
 2 2π

Ir =  ∫π / 3 L ω
3 2
i d ( t ) 
 2π
Rms o/p current is the combination of rms current of each diode.

I rms = 3I r
Effects of source and load
inductance
at π vac and vbc are equal and I dc still flows through D1.
The current id 1 decreases, resulting and induced
voltage across L1 of + vL1 and o/p becomes vL = vac + vL1.
At the same time o/p voltage due to vbc is vL = vbc − vL 2 .
Result is anode voltage of D1 and D3 are equal and both
diodes conducts for some time which is called commutation
angle µ .