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GROUP 3 Casiyah, Saidatun N., Adriani P.S.
Master’s In Linguistics DIPONEGORO UNIVERSITY 2011
Definition Characteristics Types of Descriptive Research Purposes Advantages and Disadvantages Conclusion .
According to Narbuko and Achmadi (2007: 44) a descriptive research is a research which attempts to describe problem solving based on the data in recent condition. 2005:54) . characteristics and relationships between phenomenon that investigated systematically. analyzes and interprets the data.What is Descriptive Research? Descriptive research is conducted to make the description of facts. factually and accurately (Nazir. It presents. .
processes that are going on. opinions that are held. . effects that are being evident.Descriptive research is concerned with conditions or relationships that exist. or trends that are developing (Best 1981:93) It is concerned with how what is or what exists is related to some proceding event that has influenced or affected a present condition or event.
2. 1. Since the events or conditions have already occurred or exist.CHARACTERISTICS Best (1981: 106) has presented five characteristics which distinguish descriptive research from other types of research. It is non experimental. It involves hypothesis formulation and testing. the researcher selects the relevant variables for an analysis of their relationships. for it deals with the relationships between non-manipulated variables in a natural. rather than artificial. . setting.
5.. 3..CONT. It often employs the methods of randomization so that error may be estimated when inferring population characteristics from observations of samples. It uses the logical methods of inductive-deductive reasoning to arrive at generalizations. The variables and procedures are described as accurately and completely as possible so that the study can be replicated by other researchers. 4. ..
According to Nazir (2005: 61-62) descriptive method has two criteria. General criteria: a) The problem which is formulated should be proper. there is a scientific value and not too wide. d) The standard which is to make a comparison should have validity. e) It should be a clear description about time and place of research. and not too general. . b) The purpose of research should be obvious. They are general criteria and specific criteria. f) The result of research should have contents in detail either of collecting data or analyzing data with literature study. explicit. c) The data of the research should reliable fact and not from the opinion.
so there is no control to variable and the researcher does not hold the arrangement or manipulation to variable. . c) It has ex post facto characteristic.CONT…. b) The facts and the principles which is used about status problem. Specific criteria a) The principles and the data which is used should be declared in value.
or propaganda in textbook presentation. or interest in. certain topics or problem To discover level of difficulty of presentation in textbooks or in other publications.PURPOSES The purposes of the descriptive research (Best. . prejudice. To evaluate bias. To discover the relative importanceof. 1981: 107) are: To describe prevailing practices or condition.
3) It is suitable for normative standard research based on general condition.ADVANTAGES According to Subana and Sudrajat (2009: 37). 2) It is logic to give information. . the descriptive research has some advantages such as: 1) It is preferable in various kinds of investigation.
3) This research can be invalid since causes are often multiple than single.DISADVANTAGES Subana and Sudrajat (2009: 37) stated that the disadvantages of descriptive research are: 1) This research can be bias. . 2) The result of this research is limited due to that the independent variables can not be manipulated and subject can not be randomly assigned to treatment group.
. countries. To analyzes the use of symbols representing persons. beliefs of a writer. To explain the possible causal factors related to some outcome. action or even.CONT. To analize types of errors in students’work.. concepts.. To identify the literary style. . or points of view. political parties or institutions.
Time and motion study . A comparative study 6. Survey 2. Job and activity analysis research 5. 2005:55): 1. Case study 4.TYPES OF DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH These are several types of descriptive research (Nazir. Continuity (Longitudinal) 3.
.CONCLUSION Descriptive research is a research which solves the problem by describing the facts that exist in certain condition without any data treatment or nonmanipulated data. The result of this resarch illustrates the real condition of the object which is investigated. The use of statistics may help to interpretate data and to draw conclusion.
Prentice Hall Inc. 1995. Suharsimi. The Case Study.A. .N. Fink. California: Sage Publication Ltd. Maxfield.London: Oxford University Press. John W. Yogyakarta: Andi Offset Hornby. 1981. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionnary of Current English. 2001. 1974. Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik.1982. Research in Education. Yogyakarta: Rineka Cipta. Methodology Research. A. E. Education Res. Sutrisno. How to Sample in Surveys. Arlene.BIBLIOGRAPHY Arikunto. Best. Hadi.
2005. Bogor: Ghalia Indonesia. 1995. A Four Year Continuation Study of aTeachers College Class. Dasar-dasar Penelitian Ilmiah. . M. Prinsip Dasar Metodologi Bahasa. M and Sudrajat. 1994. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara Abu. Metodologi Nawawi. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press. Metode Penelitian. Education Res. Nazir. M. 2007.Narbuko. Cholid and Achmadi. Penelitian. Moh. Bandung: Pustaka Setia.L and Milholland. Bidang Subana. 1933. Syakur. E. Penelitian Whitney. Hadari.2009. Metode Penelitian Sosial. Surakarta:Sebelas Maret University Press.
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