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CCNA Exploration Network Fundamentals

Chapter 1 Living in a Network-Centric World


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Objectives
Describe how networks impact our daily lives

Describe the role of data networking in the human network


Identify the key components of any data network Identify the opportunities and challenges posed by converged networks Describe the characteristics of network architectures relating to fault tolerance, scalability, quality of service (QoS) and security
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Networks Supporting The Way We Live


Data networks that were once the transport of information for businesses are now also used to improve our quality of life
check bank balance and pay bills electronically find the least-congested route to a destination use instant messaging and chat for both personal and business use post and share your photographs, home videos and experiences shop and sell at online auctions use Internet phone services

obtain health information and nutritional advice

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Todays Popular Communication Tools


Instant messaging (IM)
real-time text communication between two or more users also supports voice, photo and video sharing, and file transfers

Blogs or weblogs
individuals publish their personal opinions and thoughts about any conceivable topic allow unfiltered and unedited publication of ideas from anyone

Podcasting
website that contains audio files available for downloading

Wikis
publicly created web content that groups of people can edit and view together organizations and individuals build their own wikis to capture collected knowledge for use as collaboration tools

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Examples of Communication Tools

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Networks Supporting The Way We Learn


Traditional learning methods make use of textbooks and instructorled classes Courses delivered using networks or Internet resources are often called online learning experiences or e-learning Online courses can contain voice, data and video
available to the students at any time from any place

Blended courses can combine instructor-led classes with online courseware to provide the best of both delivery methods

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Global Online Learning Experience


The instructor provides a syllabus and establishes a preliminary schedule for completing the course content The way we learn is supported by courseware delivered over the data network

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Learning by Sharing and Exploring


Students can communicate with the instructor and fellow students using online tools
bulletin/discussion boards, chat rooms and instant messaging

Links provide access to learning resources outside the courseware

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Online Courseware Administration


Improved management and administration of courses
enrollment, assessment delivery and grade books

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Benefits of Online Courseware


Current and accurate training materials
collaboration among vendors, equipment manufacturers and training providers ensures that the courseware is up to date with the latest processes and procedures

Availability of training to a wide audience


online training is not dependent on travel schedules, instructor availability, or physical class size

Consistent quality of instruction


quality of instruction does not vary as it would if different instructors were delivering an in-person lesson

Cost reduction
facilities to support in-person training can be reduced or eliminated
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Networks Supporting The Way We Work


Business applications can be accessed remotely as if employees were on site Workers in any location can reach each other and access multiple resources on the network

Remote Access
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Accessing Multiple Resources

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Networks Supporting The Way We Play


Explore places of interest interactively or preview actual destinations before a trip Posting photographs about an event online for others to view Participate in online games Preview motion pictures

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Basic Characteristics of Communication


Rules or agreements to govern the conversation are first established
these rules, called protocols, must be followed in order for the message to be successfully delivered and understood

A message with important information may need a confirmation that the message has been received and understood As a message moves through the network, many factors can prevent the message from reaching the recipient or distort its intended meaning
internal or external factors

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External Factors
The quality of the pathway between the sender and the recipient The number of times the message has to change form The number of times the message has to be redirected or readdressed The number of other messages being transmitted simultaneously on the communication network The amount of time allocated for successful communication

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Internal Factors
The size of the message
it is more difficult to deliver a large bulky message, quickly and without damage, than it is to deliver a number of smaller, less complex messages

The complexity of the message The importance of the message

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Four Elements of a Network


Rules or agreements to govern the messages are sent, directed, received and interpreted The messages or units of information that travel from one device to another A means of interconnecting these devices a medium that can transport the messages from one device to another Devices on the network that exchange messages with each other

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Rules
Rules govern every step of the process, from the way cables are designed to the way the digital signals are sent These rules are called protocols, e.g. TCP/IP protocol stack

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Messages
Message is a generic term that encompasses text, voice or video information The message must be converted to bits, binary coded digital signals, before they are transmitted on the medium

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Medium
Physically carries the message Connects the devices Can be wired or wireless
UTP cables

wireless router

Wired connections

Wireless connections

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Devices
End-user devices
desktop computer server notebook (or laptop) IP phone

Networking devices
LAN switch firewall router wireless router

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Common Data Network Symbols

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Non-Converged Networks
In the past, every one of the services required a different technology to carry its particular communication signal Each service has its own set of rules and standards

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Converged Networks
Convergence occurs when telephones, broadcasts (radio and TV), and computer communications all use the same rules, devices and media to transport messages

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Network Architecture
Refers to the conceptual plans on which a physical network is built Must support a wide range of applications and services Four basic characteristics of the network architecture
fault tolerance scalable Support quality of service secure

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Fault Tolerance
A fault tolerant network limits the impact of hardware or software failure
recover quickly when a failure occurs depend on redundant links, or paths, between the source and destination of a message redundant connections allow for alternate paths

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Circuit Switched Connection-Oriented Networks


A physical, dedicated path or circuit is temporary setup between the source and destination The circuit is maintained for the duration of the call Early circuit-switched networks do not dynamically recover from drop circuits

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Packet Switched Connectionless Networks


The entire message is broken into packets which are addressed and numbered Any packets can be sent through the network using any available path

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Scalability
A scalable network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without impacting the performance of the service being delivered to existing users Depends on a hierarchical layered design for the physical infrastructure and logical architecture

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Internet Structure
The Internet is a hierarchical structure of interconnected networks Many individual networks that provide Internet connectivity cooperate to follow accepted standards and protocols
new products can integrate with and enhance the existing infrastructure

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Quality of Service (QoS)


QoS refers to the mechanism that manage congested network traffic Congestion is caused when the demand on the network exceeds the available capacity Some constraints on network resources cannot be avoided
technology limitations cost local availability of highbandwidth services

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QoS Classification
Prioritize which types of data packets must be delivered at the expense of other types of packets that can be delayed or dropped
use queues to prioritize traffic

Classify applications in categories based on specific quality of service requirements

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Prioritizing Network Traffic


Delay-sensitive (or time sensitive) communication
increase priority for services like voice or video transmission

Delay-insensitive (or non-time sensitive) communication


decrease priority for web page retrieval or e-mail

High importance to organization


increase priority for business transaction data or production control

Undesirable communication
decrease priority or block unwanted activity such as gaming

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Security
The Internet has become a widely accessible means of business and personal communications
the same environment that attracts legitimate business, however, also attracts scam artists and vandals

Compromising the integrity of company assets could lead to serious business and financial repercussions

Tools and procedures are being implemented to combat inherent security flaws in the network architecture

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Network Security Concerns


Network infrastructure security
physical securing of devices that provide network connectivity and preventing unauthorized access to the management software that resides on them

Content security
protecting the information contained within the packets being transmitted over the network and the information stored on network attached devices tools to provide security for the content of individual messages must be implemented on top of the underlying protocols

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Consequences of Security Breach


Network outage causing a loss of communications and transactions occurring, with consequent loss of business Misdirection and loss of personal or business funds

Theft of intellectual property such as project bids and strategic plans and used by a competitor
Exposure of confidential customer data, which may result in loss of market confidence in the business

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Security Measures
Prevent unauthorized disclosure or theft of information
ensure confidentiality

Prevent unauthorized modification of information


maintain communication integrity

Prevent denial of service (DoS)


ensure availability

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Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability


Ensuring confidentiality
allowing only the intended and authorized users to read the data a strong system for user authentication encrypting the content

Maintaining communication integrity


data integrity is the assurance that the information has not been altered in transmission, from source to destination source integrity is the assurance that the identity of the sender has been validated using digital signatures and hashing algorithms

Ensuring availability
resources are available to authorized users virus software and firewalls are used to combat virus and DoS attacks building fully redundant network infrastructures

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Trends in Networking
Increasing number of mobile users
a demand for more mobile connectivity to data networks

New and more capable devices


functions performed by cell phones, personal digital assistants, organizers and pagers are converging into single handheld devices with continuous connectivity to providers of services and content

Increased availability of services


new services are introduced and older services are enhanced to meet user demands

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