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it sends partial updates when the path or the metric changes for that route. Less overhead: EIGRP uses multicast and unicast rather than broadcast Load balancing: EIGRP supports unequal metric load balancing Easy summarization: . Instead. Reduced bandwidth usage: EIGRP does not make periodic updates.EIGRP is an advanced distance vector routing protocol developed by Cisco. A router that uses EIGRP stores all available backup routes for destinations so that it can quickly adapt to alternate routes. EIGRP is an advanced distance vector or hybrid routing protocol that includes the following features: Rapid convergence: EIGRP uses the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) to achieve rapid convergence. Classless routing: EIGRP supports discontiguous subnetworks and variable-length subnet masks (VLSM).

To determine the best route (successor) and the backup route (feasible successor) to a destination. the best route is called a successor route while a backup route is called the feasible successor. EIGRP uses the following two parameters: ■ Advertised distance: The EIGRP metric for an EIGRP neighbor to reach a particular network ■ Feasible distance: The advertised distance for a particular network learned from an EIGRP neighbor plus the EIGRP metric to reach that neighbor .In EIGRP.


Five types of EIGRP packets exist. Query— Queries are sent to neighbors when a route is not available and the router needs to ask the status of the route for fast convergence.0. All the EIGRP packets are sent through EIGRP multicast address 224. Reply— Reply packets to the queries contain the status of the route being queried for. The reliable EIGRP packets are as follows: Update— Update packets contain EIGRP routing updates sent to an EIGRP neighbor. further categorized as reliable packets and unreliable packets. EIGRP default administrative distances – Summary routes = 5 – Internal routes = 90 – Imported routes = 170 .10. The unreliable EIGRP packets are as follows: Hello— Hello packets are used to establish EIGRP neighbor relationships across a link. Acknowledgment— Acknowledgment packets ensure reliable delivery of EIGRP packets.0.

.The formula for calculating EIGRP metric is: Metric = 256*((K1*Bw) + (K2*Bw)/(256-Load) + (K3*Delay)*(K5/(Reliability + K4))) k1=bandwidth k2=load k3=delay k4=reliability k5=MTU K1 = 1 and K3 = 1 and rest all are Zero.

Configuring and Verifying EIGRP Use the router eigrp and network commands to create an EIGRP routing process. all routers within an AS must use the same AS number to exchange routing information with each other. Note that EIGRP requires an autonomous system (AS) number. The AS number does not have to be registered as is the case when routing on the Internet with the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing protocol. Figure 5-3 shows the EIGRP configuration of a simple network. . However.

Troubleshooting commands: show ip eigrp interfaces: Lists the working interfaces on which EIGRP is enabled (based on the network commands). does not list neighbors for which some mismatched parameter is preventing a valid EIGRP neighbor relationship. show ip eigrp topology: Lists all successor and feasible successor routes known to this router. show ip route: Lists the contents of the IP routing table. listing EIGRP-learned routes with a code of D on the left side of the output. and a list of neighbor IP addresses. . show ip eigrp neighbors: Lists known neighbors. show ip protocols: Lists the contents of the network configuration commands for each routing process. it omits passive interfaces. It does not list all known topology details.