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Disease

Pages 329-343

Disease
 Does not allow the body to function normally  Can affect individual organs or an entire body system  Divided into two groups – infectious and non-infectious

Infectious Disease

 A disease that can be passed from organism to organism  Caused by tiny organisms called PATHOGENS

4 KINDS OF PATHOGENS
 Bacteria  Viruses  Fungi  Protist

Pathogens can come from  Another person .

 Contaminated objects .

 Animal bite .

 Environment .

Immune System responsible for  distinguishing (telling the difference) between the different kinds of pathogens  Reacting to each kind according to its type .

When a pathogen enters the body  It works by damaging individual cells within the organs  In some cases it attacks an entire body system .

Some Infectious Diseases You Should Know  Colds  Flu  Strep Throat  Athlete’s Foot  AIDS .

runny nose. fever…)  Cold can not be treated with an antibiotic because it is caused by a virus .Colds  Illness caused by a viral infection located in the respiratory system  The cold virus multiplies and attacks the mucous membranes of the nose and throat causing the common effects of the cold (sore throat.

and a more severe cough than the common cold and usually lasts longer . muscle aches.Flu  Influenza. is a highly contagious viral disease of the respiratory system  Typically causes fever. commonly known as “the flu”.

Athlete’s foot  Common fungal infection of the skin of the feet  May be contracted from public environments  Grows in the warm and moist environment usually between the toes  Difficult to cure .

AIDS  Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)  Caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)  The virus attacks the cells in the immune system making the organism unable to fight off other pathogens that may attack the body .

pain. redness and swelling of the throat and tonsils  May produce mild or severe symptoms .Strep Throat  Contagious disease caused by bacterial infection  Symptoms include fever.

Let’s follow the journey of a pathogen as it attacks its victim! .

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What type of pathogen is Salmonella? .

 Salmonella  is a bacterium What was the source of the pathogen? .

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 Source of the pathogen  Contaminated food What is the first defense? .

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 Stomach acid destroys some of the bacteria  Macrophages try to destroy the Salmonella What does the body do next to try and get rid of the pathogen? .

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How does Salmonella attack the body?  Enters the cells of the villi and destroys them  The destroyed cells release distress chemicals What causes the diarrhea? .

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The waves of peristalsis are so rapid that the large intestine is unable to absorb the water How does Salmonella cause your body to ache? .

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The chemicals released from the cells leak into the blood stream and go into the muscle tissue Does the medicine kill the Salmonella? .

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How does the immune system begin to respond to the Salmonella invasion? .

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 The immune system identifies the pathogen and produces helper cells  Helper cells “help” the macrophages to do their job – destroy the Salmonella .

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Non-infectious Diseases  Not caused by pathogens in the body  Not spread from organism to organism .

alcohol .Non-infectious Diseases are caused by malfunctions in the body. radiation.  Heredity – information you get from your parents  The environment – examples are sun. drugs. chemicals  Lifestyle choices – smoking.

Types of Noninfectious Diseases  Diabetes  Asthma  Parkinson’s disease  Skin Cancer .

Diabetes  A disease that results in glucose (sugar) level being higher than normal. .  It is caused by the person’s inability to either produce or use properly a natural chemical made in the body (pancreas) called insulin.

Diabetes may lead to  Kidney disease  Heart disease  Vision problems .

High levels of blood sugar lead to disorders  Like an increase in problems with circulation .

Parkinson’s Disease  Disease of the nervous system that occurs when nerve cells in the brain stop functioning properly. affecting the muscular system .

there is no cure .Parkinson’s Disease  Major symptoms  Severe shaking (tremors)  Disabilities involving movement  At present.

Skin Cancer  Disease in which skin cells found in the outer layers of the skin become damaged. .

Factors that lead to Skin Cancer  Damaging ultraviolet rays (UV) from the sun or tanning beds  heredity .

Asthma  Affects the lungs and the airways that deliver air to the lungs  Causes periodic attacks of wheezing and difficulty breathing .

mold. exercise. such as dust.Asthma attacks  Occur when the airways become inflamed in response to a stimulus. or cold weather  Some attacks start for no apparent reason . pets.

Discovery Channel School.unitedstreaming. 2002.com/> .Resources  Body Story: Germs. unitedstreaming. 5 December 2006 <http://www.

missouri.jpg www.edu www.edu tiee.com moon./paramecium1.            www.state.edu/.uwlax.edu/.ucmp..ecoed.jpg www.com/images/pathogens.com .ouhsc.gif www..kidsplanet.net www.fordogtrainers.monografias.gif www...upmc.us colds.moea.berkeley.mn.org www.a1organics.wcasohio.org www.com/trabajos5/virus/Image166./Visuals/athletesfoot.